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What are Cannabinoids?

What are cannabinoids
  1. What are cannabinoids

The term “cannabinoids” refer to a specific group of chemical compounds.  Cannabinoids are found naturally in both plants and animals including humans.  Cannabinoids interact with the human endocannabinoid system (ECS) and helps to regulate and balance key body functions[1-3].  Both plants and animals produce their own cannabinoids.  Cannabinoids made by cells of human and animal are referred as endocannabinoids.  Plant-derived cannabinoids are defined as phytocannabinoids.  These phytocannabinoids are produced in the trichomes present in the surface of cannabis plant.  Cannabinoids can also be synthesized in a laboratory setting.  These cannabinoids are referred as synthetic cannabinoids.

  1. Why does the mammalian produce endocannabinoids?

Endocannabinoids are naturally occurring, lipid-based molecules produced by human and animal body[3].  They are present in various organs and tissues, such as muscles, brain, and circulating cells.  They act as neurotransmitters.  Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers in the body that send signals between nerve cells.

Endocannabinoids are similar to phytocannabinoids present in cannabis plant.  Endocannabinoids help to maintain various bodily functions.  The body produces them as necessary.  Therefore, it is difficult to know the typical levels of endocannabinoids present in the body.  People with chronic and serious illnesses often suffer with endocannabinoid deficiency or dysregulation.  This means their ECS is not working properly.

Two main human endocannabinoids identified are[2,4]:

  • Arachidonoyl ethanolamide (Anandamide)(AEA)
  • 2-Archidonoyl glycerol (2-AG)

These compounds become active when they bind to cannabinoid receptors on the surface of cells in the body, which sends a message to the ECS to kick-start a response.

  1. Cannabinoid receptors

Two primary cannabinoid receptors present in the human body are[3,5,6]

  • CB1 – mostly found in the brain, spinal cord and other parts of the body including the heart, uterus, testis, liver, small intestine, and peripheral cells.
  • CB2mostly found in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), skeletal system, and in immune cells.

When endocannabinoids become active, depending on the location of the receptor in the body they may bind to either CB1 or CB2, which sends a message to the ECS causing different effects. 

  1. The endocannabinoid system (ECS)

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a biological system in the body that helps to regulate and balance key body functions.  The ECS is made up of endocannabinoids, endocannabinoid receptors and the enzymes.  The role of the ECS is to regulate the flow of chemical messages that are sent between cells, with the goal of maintaining equilibrium.  When the ECS is functioning well, optimal functioning of many of the brain’s and body’s physiological processes is maintained.  Therefore, dysfunction of ECS causes chronic medical conditions[3].

  1. What physiological pathways are regulated by ECS?

ECS is the most widespread receptor system in the human body[3].  It regulates many of the most important physiological pathways, including[6]:

  • Cardiovascular activity
  • Pain perception
  • Hormonal regulation
  • Gastrointestinal activity
  • Maintenance of bone mass
  • Protection of neurons
  • Metabolism control
  • Immune function
  • Inhibition of tumor cells
  • Inflammatory reactions
  1. Endocannabinoid deficiency syndrome

For several decades researchers have been studying how deficiency of endocannabinoids in the body relates to non-infective medical conditions.  Several scientific studies have demonstrated that deficiency or dysfunction of the ECS can be a cause for significant and difficult-to-treat medical conditions of humans. 

ECS dysfunction has been found in the following medical conditions. 

  • Anxiety and depression[7]
  • Autoimmune diseases[8]
  • Cardiovascular diseases[9]
  • Complex regional pain syndrome[10]
  • Eating disorders[11]
  • Epilepsy[12]
  • Failure to thrive in newborns[13]
  • Fibromyalgia/myofascial pain syndrome[14]
  • Huntington’s diseases[15]
  • Irritable bowel syndrome[16]
  • Migraine headaches[17]
  • Multiple sclerosis[18]
  • Nausea and motion sickness[19]
  • Parkinson’s disease[20]
  • Schizophrenia[21]
  1. Other functions regulated by ECS

The ECS may help to regulate the following functions of human body[3].

  • Appetite and digestion
  • Sleep
  • Pain sensation
  • Inflammation and other immune responses
  • Mood
  • Metabolism
  • Learning and memory
  • Reproduction system function

Hence, maintaining normal functioning ECS is necessary to maintain the well-balanced equilibrium of the body functions.

  1. How to maintain a balanced ECS system

If your ECS is not working properly, you may have an imbalance, which can express as a medical condition.  There are no pharmaceutical medications that directly address ECS.

Maintaining healthy weight through balanced diet and regular exercise may helps to keep the ECS functioning normally.

However, the cannabis plant contains a “stockpile” of plant cannabinoid compounds that can interact with the ECS to restore the balance of the cellular messages[6, 22-25].

  1. Summary

Full function of ECS is still unknown.  However, research suggests that it plays a vital role in maintaining balance and proper function of the body.  The ECS consists of endocannabinoids, receptors, and enzymes.  They work together to maintain stability of body processes.

The ECS posses many therapeutic targets.  These targets may be useful to treat various health conditions.

  1. The cannabis plant

The cannabis plant is dioecious (has male and female plants).  Scientific name of the plant is Cannabis sativa L., in the family of Cannabaceae.  It is a complex plant with a large number of chemical compounds of which more than five hundred compounds are known[6,26].  When using cannabis as medicine, one takes a mixture of naturally occurring compounds.  This mixture of compounds always works together.  Most of the compounds in cannabis plant are biologically active.  These compounds belong to several groups such as cannabinoids, terpenoids, and flavonoids etc.  These chemicals interact with the brain and body causing certain effects.  Hundreds of cannabis varieties are grown all over the world.  These varieties are called as “chemovars”.  Their chemical composition is different to each other.  Cannabis with various chemical compositions shows various medicinal effects.

  1. Why does the cannabis plant produce phytocannabinoids?

The cannabis plant produces phytocannabinoids, or exogenous cannabinoids to maintain its defence mechanism against insects, herbivores, and as a direct response to external pressures[27].  In other words, for its survival.  Phytocannabinoids, are produced by glandular trichomes covering the surface of the cannabis plant.  These compounds are typically made up of twenty-one carbon atoms.  Approximately 120 phytocannabinoids have now been identified, and likely more will be discovered.  However, research into their medicinal effects has only been done on the most prominent ones.  These phytocannabinoids show intoxication effect, psychoactive effect or other important physiological effects on human body by manipulating its biochemistry [3,6,28,29].

  1. Phytocannabinoids are not species-specific to cannabis plant

Phytocannabinoids were initially thought to be species-specific to cannabis plant.  However, phytocannabinoids are known in several other plant species beside cannabis.  These plants belong to genus Echinacea, Helichrysum (sunflowers) and Radula (liverworts)[3].

  1. What is “psychoactive” and “intoxication” substance

Simply a psychoactive substance is one that changes a person’s mental state.

For example, caffeine, nicotine, and CBD are psychoactive substances, but not intoxicating.

An intoxication substance is one that alters a person’s mental states with diminished physical or mental control[3].

For example, Δ9-THC is psychoactive and also can be intoxicating, depending on the dose taken.

  1. Prominent phytocannabinoids and their potential health benefits

Phytocannabinoid carries a wide range of medicinal and therapeutic applications.  There is still a lot of research that needs to be done.  Valuable scientific research and traditional applications suggests a vast number of medicinal benefits of phytocannabinoids.

Here are some prominent phytocannabinoids and some of their potential health and wellness properties on human body[3,6,30].

  1. Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC)

Δ9-THC is the most prominent cannabinoid in the cannabis plant.  It is fat soluble.  THC binds directly to cannabinoid receptors similar to the way endocannabinoids bind to them.  Therefore, Δ9-THC found to produce intoxicating, or “high” effect.  Δ9-THC has amazing medicinal properties.  Many different symptoms can be managed with proper and responsible use.  People with chronic and serious illnesses often suffer with endocannabinoid deficiency or dysregulation.  Such imbalances can be corrected by the aid of Δ9-THC.

  1. What are the medicinal effects of Δ9-THC?
  • Anticancer
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antioxidant
  • Improve sleep/sedating
  • Neuroprotectant
  • Reduce anxiety and depression
  • Reduces/eliminates nausea and vomiting
  • Reduces intraocular pressure
  • Reduces spasticity and muscle spasms
  • Relieves chronic pain
  • Stimulates appetite
  1. Cannabidiol (CBD)

Cannabidiol (CBD) is the second most prominent cannabinoid in the cannabis plant.  CBD is a fat-soluble molecule.  Not like Δ9-THC, CBD does not bind directly to the cannabinoid receptors.  Therefore, CBD has no intoxicating or “high” effect, and does not cause tolerance with repeated use.

  1. What are the medicinal effects of CBD?
  • Antibacterial
  • Anticancer
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antioxidant
  • Anticonvulsant
  • Antipsychotic
  • Neuroprotectant
  • Promotes bone growth
  • Reduce anxiety and depression
  • Reduces/eliminates nausea and vomiting
  • Reduces intraocular pressure
  • Reduces spasticity and muscle spasms
  • Relieves chronic pain
  • Stimulates appetite
  1. Cannabinol (CBN)

Cannabinol is the third prominent phytocannabinoid after Δ9-THC and CBD.  However, CBN was the first discovered phytocannabinoid and thought to be the main intoxicating compound in cannabis for many years until the discovery of Δ9-THC.  CBN typically exists in trace amounts in freshly harvested cannabis flower.  During long-term storage of flowers, both Δ9-THC and Δ8-THC degrades overtime and oxidizes to form CBN.

Unlike Δ9-THC, CBN binds very weakly to cannabinoid receptors.  However, studies have shown no symptoms of intoxication.

  1. What are the medicinal effects of CBN?
  • Antibacterial
  • Anticonvulsant
  • Promotes bone growth
  • Reduces intraocular pressure
  • Relieves chronic pain
  • Stimulates appetite
  1. Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid (Δ9-THCA)

Most of the time, Δ9-THCA is the main cannabinoid found in large amounts in raw, unheated, drug-variety cannabis flowers.  When Δ9-THCA is exposed to heat or sunlight, it converts to Δ9-THC.  This process is called “decarboxylation”.  However, Δ9-THCA does not convert to Δ9-THC in the body.

There are two known forms of Δ9-THCA as Δ9-THCA-a and Δ9-THCA-b.  But cannabis plant appears to make more Δ9-THCA-a.  Therefore, Δ9-THCA-a is the main focus of studies and simply referred to as Δ9-THCA or THCA.

It is still unclear that Δ9-THCA binds directly to cannabinoid receptor or not.  However, the current consensus is that Δ9-THCA likely binds to receptors very weakly.  If this is true Δ9-THCA should posses intoxication effect.  However, no reported scientific studies as evidence for intoxication effect of Δ9-THCA.

  1. What are the medicinal effects of Δ9-THCA?
  • Anticancer
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Anticonvulsant
  • Antispasmodic
  • Neuroprotectant
  • Potential antidepressant
  • Blocks anticipatory nausea
  1. Cannabidiolic Acid (CBDA)

CBDA is found in raw cannabis flowers as a thermally unstable compound.  When heated or exposed to sunlight, it will convert to CBD through decarboxylation.  CBDA is found to be non-intoxicating.  CBDA was thought to be an inactive compound in the past.  However, recent studies reveal that CBDA possesses many valuable medicinal properties.

  1. What are the medicinal effects of CBDA?
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antianxiety
  • Antidepressant
  • Potential anticonvulsant
  • Reduces/eliminates nausea and vomiting
  • Relieves chronic pain
  1. Cannabigerol (CBG)

CBG occurs in very small amounts in the cannabis plant.  However, CBG is a dominated cannabinoid of some fiber variety cannabis.  CBG is not intoxicating, but it is psychoactive.  Reason to that is CBG can act as a mood changer.

  1. What are the medicinal effects of CBG?
  • Antibacterial
  • Anticancer
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antioxidant
  • Antidepressant
  • Anti-psoriasis
  • Neuroprotectant
  • Promotes bone growth
  • Reduce bladder spasms
  • Reduces/eliminates nausea and vomiting
  • Reduces intraocular pressure
  • Reduces bowel inflammation
  • Stimulates appetite
  1. Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabivarin (Δ9-THCV)

Δ9-THCV is another minor phytocannabinoid present in cannabis plant.  This compound is mainly present in drug variety cannabis plants.  It almost structurally similar to Δ9-THC except it has two less carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon side chain.  As Δ9-THC, Δ9-THCV also binds with both CB1 and CB2 receptors showing physiological responses on human.  Most of these responses have been observed when combined with other cannabinoids than itself.  However, this cannabinoid has not shown any intoxication effect.

  1. What are the medicinal effects of Δ9-THCV?
  • Anticancer
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antioxidant
  • Anticonvulsant
  • Antipsychotic
  • Neuroprotectant
  • Appetite suppressant
  • Potentially improve glucose tolerance and increase insulin sensitivity
  • Relieves pain
  1. Cannabidivarin (CBDV)

CBDV is a minor phytocannabinoid present in cannabis plant.  The compound itself is non-intoxication and non-psychoactive on human.  Numerous studies have reported about physiological activity of this compound.

  1. What are the medicinal effects of CBDV?
  • Anticonvulsant
  • Relieves neuropathic pain
  1. Delta-8-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ8-THC)

This also a minor cannabinoid present in cannabis plant.  Δ8-THC was discovered around the same time as Δ9-THC.  This cannabinoid is an “isomer” of Δ9-THC, meaning it has the same molecular formula but differs slightly in the way the atoms are arranged in the chemical structure.  Δ8-THC has the similar physiological properties and pharmacological effect as Δ9-THC.  But it has less (less than 50%) intoxication effect than Δ9-THC.  This is a valuable benefit of this Δ8-THC for people they do not expect intoxication effect from cannabinoids.  Additionally, Δ8-THC is more stable than Δ9-THC, giving it a long shelf life.

  1. What are the medicinal effects of Δ8-THC?
  • Anticancer
  • Neuroprotectant
  • Antianxiety
  • Reduces/eliminates nausea and vomiting
  • Reduces intraocular pressure
  • Relieves pain
  • Stimulates appetite
  1. Cannabichromene (CBC)

CBC is also a minor cannabinoid present in cannabis plant.  A fat-soluble compound with no intoxication effect.  CBC does not bind to cannabinoid receptors.  It typically shows entourage effect with other cannabinoids.

  1. What are the medicinal effects of CBC?
  • Anticancer
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Anti-acne
  • Antidepressant
  • Antibacterial
  • Antifungal
  • Relieves pain
  1. Summery

Phytocannabinoid compounds present in the cannabis plant possess many different sites of action within the human brain and body.  These cannabinoids interact not only with cannabinoid receptors but also with many other different receptors and targets, causing changes in the body biochemistry.  ECS system is involved in various parts of human physiology.  This clearly shows the importance of understanding the action of each phytocannabinoid for effective application.

  1. Terpenoids

Terpenoids, also call terpenes are naturally occurring organic compounds exist in plants including cannabis.  Most terpenes possess characteristic aroma.  Therefore, terpenes contribute by providing aroma to plant extracts.  For this reason, terpenes are typically known as essential oils.  More than twenty thousand plant derived terpenes have been discovered[31].  However, about two hundred of them exist in cannabis[28,32-35].

Terpenoids are categorized by the amount of carbon units present in the molecule, such as monoterpenes (10 carbons), sesquiterpenes (15 carbons), diterpenes (20 carbons), sesterterpenes (25 carbons), triterpenes (30 carbons) etc..  Most terpenoids are highly sensitive to temperature, light and acidity, causing molecular rearrangements and degradation[27].

  1. Terpenes in cannabis

Terpenes have evolved within the cannabis plant as for defence mechanism against plant predators[27].  These terpenes are responsible to provide odor, colour and flavour to cannabis plant.  Production of terpenes in cannabis plant is a genetically controlled process.  Therefore, composition and type of terpenes present always varies among different chemovars.  In addition to those other environmental factors such as light, soil fertility etc., may affect terpene production and composition within a chemovar.  It is important to note that terpenes present in cannabis are recognized as safe for human consumption by US Food and Drug Administration[3].

  1. Prominent cannabis terpenoids and their potential health benefits

Terpenes are known to be biologically active.  This is valid for cannabis terpenes too.  Similar to phytocannabinoids, terpenes also interact with human cells, neurotransmitters receptors, and other parts of human physiology[36].  Terpenes also can enhance their medicinal effect by synergising each other.  Most importantly, phytocannabinoids and terpenoids work synergistically to provide certain therapeutic effects.  Valuable scientific research suggests a vast number of medicinal benefits of the combination of phytocannabinoids and terpenes on cannabis[30,37,38].

Some prominent cannabis terpenoids, as well as some of their potential health and wellness properties on human body are shown below[3,6,30].

  1. d-Limonene

Limonene is a monoterpene compound present in cannabis plant.  This is a colourless hydrocarbon compound that exists as a liquid in nature.

Limonene is an asymmetric molecule and consists with two stereoisomers as d– and l-limonene (also call (+) and () limonene).  The d-limonene is commonly available, contain orange odour and major component in citrus peels.  The less common l-limonene has piny/turpentine-like odor.  Cannabis is proven to have d-limonene.

  1. What are the medicinal effects of d-Limonene?
  • Antianxiety
  • Anticancer
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antioxidant
  • Analgesic
  • Antidepressant
  • Bronchodilator
  • GERD suppressant
  1. Beta-caryophyllene (β-caryophyllene)

β-caryophyllene is a bicyclic sesquiterpene compound found in many natural essential oils.  The most abundant isomer found nature is  (-)-β-caryophyllene ((1R,4E,9S)-4,11,11-trimethyl-8-methylidenebicyclo [7.2.0] undec-4-ene).  This is also a highly abundant terpenoid in cannabis.  This compound has a spicy and woodsy aroma.  β-caryophyllene has an ability to bind directly with CB2 receptors.

  1. What are the medicinal effects of β-caryophyllene?
  • Antibacterial
  • Anticancer
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antifungal
  • Analgesic
  • Anti-itching
  • Antimalarial
  • Gastrointestinal relief
  • May reduce alcohol intake
  1. Alpha-pinene (α-pinene)
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α-pinene is a monoterpene compound present in natural plant oil as two stereoisomers: (+) and (-)-α-pinene.  This terpenoid is the major constituent in essential oil fraction of many coniferous trees.  Both isomers are common in nature.  They exist as single isomers or racemic mixture.  This compound has a pine and skunky aroma.

α-pinene is one of the main terpenoid of cannabis plant and contributes to distinct and unique odor profile to different chemovar.

  1. What are the medicinal effects of α-pinene?
  • Bronchodilator
  • Increase focus and alertness
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Analgesic
  • Increase permeability of blood-brain barrier
  • Reduces THC-induced memory loss
  1. Linalool

Linalool is an acyclic monoterpene alcohol, present in natural plant oil as two stereoisomers: (+) and (-)-linalool.  Linalool is abundant in aromatic plants.  Both isomers are common in nature.  However, differences in the ratio of isomers can yield different fragrances.  In most cases, they exist as single isomer.  (+)-linalool has a sweet floral-like odor and (-)-linalool has a woody or spicy aroma.  Linalool is also abundant in cannabis chemovars.

  1. What are the medicinal effects of linalool?
  • Antibacterial/antifungal
  • Active against acne bacteria
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antianxiety
  • Analgesic
  • Anticonvulsant
  • Antimalarial
  • Antidepressant
  1. Beta-myrcene (β-myrcene)

β-myrcene is a monoterpene hydrocarbon compound that exists as a liquid in nature.  Substantial amount of β-myrcene is present in cannabis plant.  β-myrcene also found in other plant essential oils such as hops, bay, parsley etc.  β-myrcene is the only abundant isomer in nature.

β-myrcene contributes to produce clove and earthy aroma to plant extracts.

  1. What are the medicinal effects of β-myrcene?
  • Antibacterial
  • Anticancer
  • Antioxidant
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antianxiety
  • Analgesic
  • Antidepressant
  • Muscle relaxant
  • Sedating/hypnotic
  1. Ocimene

Ocimene is a monoterpene hydrocarbon present in many plants including cannabis.  Ocimene exists as an isomeric mixture of three isomers or as a pure isomer.  The mixture contains one α-ocimene and two β-ocimene isomers.  Ocimene is responsible for sweet and herbaceous flavors of certain plants including some cannabis strains, and it can also add citrusy and woody undertones.  It may also offer a wide array of medicinal properties as well as uplifting effects.

  1. What are the medicinal effects of Ocimene?
  • Antibacterial/antifungal
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antiviral
  • Decongestant
  1. Terpinolene

Terpinolene is a cyclic monoterpene hydrocarbon compound that exists as a liquid in nature.  Terpinolene is known as the “least-abundant terpene” found in cannabis.  There are hardly any cannabis chemovar with a terpinolene-dominant terpene profile.  This compound alone gives an earthy and woodsy aroma.

  1. What are the medicinal effects of terpinolene?
  • Antibacterial/antifungal
  • Anticancer
  • Antioxidant
  • Gastrointestinal relief
  • Analgesic
  • Sedating
  1. Caryophyllene oxide

Caryophyllene oxide is an oxygenated bicyclic sesquiterpene compound present in plants.  This is usually form as an epoxidized product of β-caryophyllene.  The most abundant isomer found in the nature is (-)-caryophyllene oxide ((1R,4R,6R,10S)-9-methylene-4,12,12-trimethyl-5-oxatricyclo [8.2.0.0 4,6] dodecane).  Caryophyllene oxide is believed to be the only terpene in cannabis that has the ability to successfully bind with CB2 receptor.  This property makes it highly beneficial for medicinal uses.  Furthermore, it’s the component responsible for cannabis identification by drug-sniffing dogs.  Caryophyllene oxide has a sweet, woodsy aroma.

  1. What are the medicinal effects of caryophyllene oxide?
  • Antioxidant
  • Anticancer
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antifungal
  • Analgesic
  • Antiviral
  1. Humulene

Humulene, also known as α-humulene or α-caryophyllene.  Humulene is a naturally occurring monocyclic sesquiterpene hydrocarbon.  This compound was first found in the essential oils of hops (humulus lupulus), from which it derives it’s name.  Humulene is an isomer of β-caryophyllene, and both are often found together as a mixture in many aromatic plants.  Humulene produces earthy, herbaceous aroma to essential oil fraction.

  1. What are the medicinal effects of Humulene?
  • Antibacterial
  • Anticancer
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Analgesic
  • Appetite suppressant
  1. Guaiol

Guaiol, also known as Champacol is a bicyclic sesquiterpenoid alcohol found in several plants including cannabis.  This compound is a solid at room temperature and melts at elevated temperatures.  Guaiol produces pine, woodsy aroma to essential oil fraction.  Only 2-[(3S,5R,8S)-3,8-Dimethyl-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydroazulen-5-yl] propan-2-ol isomer of guaiol is found in nature.

  1. What are the medicinal effects of Guaiol?
  • Antimicrobial
  • Antianxiety
  • Anti-inflammatory
  1. Nerolidol

Nerolidol, also known as peruviol and penetrol, is a naturally occurring sesquiterpene alcohol found in the essential oil fraction of many plants and flowers including cannabis.  There are two geometrical isomers of nerolidol as trans– and cis-nerolidol.  Both isomers exist in nature, but trans-isomer is dominant.  The aroma of nerolidol is earthy and woodsy.

  1. What are the medicinal effects of nerolidol?
  • Antifungal
  • Sedating
  • Antimalarial
  • Antimicrobial
  • Antioxidant
  1. Summery

Even though, terpenes have evolved within the cannabis plant for defence mechanism, they are known to be biologically active.  Similar to phytocannabinoids, terpenes also interact with human cells, neurotransmitters receptors, and other parts of human physiology.  Terpenes also can enhance their medicinal effect by synergising each other.  Most importantly, phytocannabinoids and cannabis terpenoids work synergistically to provide certain therapeutic effects.  Composition and type of terpenes present always varies among different chemovars.  This indicates the possibility of having distinct therapeutic effects from different chemovars.

  1. The entourage effects

Among more than 120 cannabinoids present in cannabis, only a few have been thoroughly studied for their biological activity on human.  In addition to this, cannabis contains hundreds of compounds that have the ability to interact with our body and mind directly.  Cannabinoids are unique to the cannabis plant, but other plant-derived compounds such as flavonoids, and terpenes also bind to human cells and influence their action.  However, when taken together as they occur naturally in the whole plant, all these compounds work synergistically with one another, potentially enhancing the most desirable effects.  Terpenes, specially play a major role as synergistic molecules by enhancing the therapeutic potency of cannabinoids such as Δ9-THC, Δ8-THC, CBD, CBG, CBN, Δ9-THCV and CBDV.  This potentiated relationship between cannabis originated compounds is known as the entourage effect[30].  The term entourage effect was first proposed by Israeli researcher Dr. Raphael Mechoulam to explain how a combination of cannabis compounds work more effectively than an isolated single compound[3,30].

  1. Known synergistic effects of selected phytocannabinoids with terpenes

The followings are several examples for known synergies between phytocannabinoids and terpenoids for specific conditions[3,6,30]

  1. Synergistic effect of d-limonene with some cannabinoids
  • THC: enhances anti-GERD effect
  • CBD: Enhances antidepressant, anticancer, and antianxiety effects
  • CBG: Enhances anticancer effect
  1. Synergistic effect of β-caryophyllene with some cannabinoids
  • THC: Enhances gastric cell protection
  • CBD: Enhances anti-inflammatory effect
  1. Synergistic effect of α-pinene with some cannabinoids
  • THC: Enhances broncho-dilatory effect
  • CBD: Enhances anti-inflammatory effect
  1. Synergistic effect of linalool with some cannabinoids
  • THC: Enhances sedation and analgesic effects
  • CBD: Enhances antianxiety, anticonvulsant effect and analgesic effects
  • THCV: Enhances anticonvulsant effect
  • CBDV: Enhances anticonvulsant effect
  1. Synergistic effect of β-myrcene with some cannabinoids
  • THC: May enhances most effects of THC
  • CBD: Enhances anti-inflammatory effect
  • CBG: Enhances anti-inflammatory effect
  1. Synergistic effect of nerolidol with some cannabinoids
  • THC: Enhances sedation
  • CBN: Enhances sedation
  1. Known mixtures of phytocannabinoids and terpenes for specific health conditions

The following mixtures are commonly used by people who use cannabis as medication for controlling specific health conditions[3].  Method of administration and ratios of each component in the mixture vary from person to person.

  • Pain relief: THC + CBD + β-myrcene + β-caryophyllene
  • Anxiety: CBD + d-limonene + linalool
  • Depression: THC + CBD + CBG + d-limonene
  • Insomnia: THC + linalool + β-myrcene
  • Inflammation: CBD + CBG + β-caryophyllene
  • ADD/ADHD: THC + β-myrcene + β-caryophyllene + α-pinene
  1. Summery

Cannabis contains hundreds of compounds that have the ability to interact with our body and mind directly.  All these compounds work synergistically with one another, potentially enhancing the most desirable effects.  This potentiated relationship between cannabis originated compounds is known as the entourage effect.

  1. How to use cannabis:

Cannabis based products mainly consist of phytocannabinoids, terpenes, and other plant originated compounds.  However, it is very common to combine and contaminate these products with other foreign matters during the cultivation and product formulation.  Therefore, it is important to know what is present in your product before you use it to obtain maximum benefit while limiting unwanted side effects.

  1. What should you know about your product?

In order to ensure quality, safety and consistency, all cannabis products produced for human consumption should be tested according to testing requirements set by country or states.  The report generated by a cannabis testing laboratory is called a Certificate of Analysis, or COA.  This COA allows the consumer to know which cannabinoids and other compounds in the product and if the product is clean and safe for you to consume[39].

  1. First and Third party COAs

The first-party COA is generated by the test performed by the company that produce the flower or made the product, and a third-party COA is one done by an independent accredited laboratory.

  1. What should be included in the COA?

The following information should be included in COA of the products.

  • Potency and profile of cannabinoids
  • Potency and profile of terpenoids
  • Presence of residual solvents
  • Presence of bacteria, fungi, and mycotoxins
  • Presence of pesticides and fungicides
  • Presence of heavy metals

Different states and countries have their own requirements for testing.  However, these requirements are changing continually, as they develop their cannabis programs.  Therefore, it is best to check with the regulatory body in the country or state to find the latest testing requirements.

  1. Potency and profile of cannabinoids

COA should list the potency of cannabinoids as weight by percent (wt%), milligrams per gram (mg/g), or milligrams per milliliter (mg/mL).  The type and quantity of cannabinoid milligram is important since this is used for dosing.  It is important to mention that cannabinoid content may vary from batch to batch of the product, as it is difficult to produce a product with exactly the same amount of cannabinoids in each batch.

  1. Potency and profile of terpenoids

Terpenes give odor and flavor to cannabis.  More importantly, they contribute to the medicinal effect of cannabis.  Terpenoids work synergistically with each other and the phytocannabinoids to enhance the entourage effect.

The COA should list the terpene profile and their quantity in milligrams per gram (mg/g).

  1. Presence of residual solvents

Organic solvents are used during the preparation and processing of cannabis extracts.  Most of the time these solvents are not purged properly and remain in the end products known as residual solvents.  Butane, propane, pentane, and ethanol are commonly used solvents in cannabis industry.  Another commonly used method is supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.  No matter what the extraction process is, all products made for human consumption should be tested for residual solvents before use.

Residual solvent amounts are typically expressed in COA as, parts per million (ppm).

  1. Presence of bacteria, fungi, and mycotoxins

Cannabis can be contaminated with bacteria or fungi at any point in the growing or product manufacturing process.  Cannabis contaminated with bacteria or fungi can be dangerous, especially for people with compromised immune function.  Mycotoxins (aflatoxins and ochratoxin) are produced by fungi and cause serious illness.

Presence of bacteria and fungi are typically reported in COA, as colony forming units per gram (CFU/g).  The amounts of mycotoxins are expressed in parts per billion (ppb).

  1. Presence of pesticides and fungicides

Agrochemicals, such as insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides are used by some growers during the cultivation of cannabis.  Pesticides are linked with several side effects and non-infective diseases on human body.  Therefore, it is important to avoid these pesticide residues in your cannabis product.

The COA should list the identity of agrochemical and their quantity in terms of micrograms per gram (μg/g) or parts per billion (ppb).

  1. Presence of heavy metals

Cannabis plants are known to be bio-accumulators.  They can absorb minerals, including heavy metals and nutrients from the soil.  Uses of cannabis plants (hemp) for phytoremediation is well known.  Therefore, cannabis can reduce heavy metal contamination on soil by absorbing them into the plant.  These accumulated heavy metals can spread throughout the plant.  Arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury are the most important toxic heavy metals in cannabis industry.  These are known to be highly toxic to human with prolonged exposure. 

Therefore, all cannabis products made for human consumption should be tested for all four toxic heavy metals before use.

The COA should list the quantities of heavy metals in terms of micrograms per gram (μg/g) or parts per billion (ppb).

  1. Delivery methods of cannabinoids to human body

There are many different delivery methods to use cannabis as recreational or medicinal approach.  There are many different ways to use cannabis includes smoking, topical application, sublingual application, vaporization, ingestion etc.  These different delivery methods may change the overall experience and effects[3].  Each of these methods alters the time to the onset of effects, the duration of the effects, and the effects themselves.  Therefore, experimenting with the various consumption methods is the best way to know about consumers personal response.

  1. Inhalation

During inhalation of cannabis, the cannabinoids are directly delivered to body through lung tissues.  Therefore, the maximum blood concentration of cannabinoids occurs within a short period.  The possible effect can start from within seconds to a few minutes.  The effect will reach to peak within thirty minutes.  This is similar to both THC and CBD.  This rapid onset of effect is advantage to apply this inhalation method to administrate cannabinoids especially in medicinal applications.  Several methods are used for inhalation of cannabis medicines by consumers.

  1. Smoking

Smoking is the oldest, traditional, and common way of inhalation of cannabis medicine by most consumers all over the world.  Dried and cracked cannabis flowers are used for preparation of cigarette (joint) or packed into a pipe as inhalation device.  Cannabis medicines release as smoke or vapors during the burning of cannabis materials are used for inhalation.  This vapor may also contain toxins and particles from the burning plant matters.  In addition to that some plant chemicals may rearrange to harmful artifacts.  This can result irritation to lungs.

  1. Vaporization

Vaporization is much preferred and safe over smoking.  Typically use a device call water pipe or “bong” for vaporization of cannabis medicine contain materials, such as dried flowers or extracts.  Vaporizers work by heating cannabis materials without burning them.  It eliminates toxins coming from burning plant matter and reduce resulting lung irritation.  Therefore, this method is widely considered to be a cleaner way to inhale cannabis medicine and produces fewer by-products compared to combustion.  However, it is well known that water pipe or bong do not decrease the amount of tar or other particles in the smoke.

E-cigarette-type vaporizers are other common popular devices use in cannabis industries.  Cannabis oil extracted from cannabis flowers are packed into a cartridge or chamber in the device and attached to a small pen like battery with temperature control unit.  The device consists with built-in heater to provide sufficient heat to vaporize cannabis medicine during vaporization process.

  1. Ingestion

Cannabis medicine can be utilized through oral administration.  When ingestion of cannabis, the onset of effect begins after thirty to ninety minutes.  However, this duration varies widely from person to person.  The effect will reach to peak withing two to three hours.  Depending on the dose, the effect will last for six to eight hours.

When ingestion occurs, cannabinoids from the edible absorbed through the intestinal tract and pass through the liver.  This is called the “first pass effect”.  Some cannabinoids can be converted into different type of compounds during this process.  They may show different effects.  For example, Δ9-THC will be broken down to 11-hydroxy-THC.  When this combined with Δ9-THC, the potency of the intoxicating effect increases.  For most cannabis consumers, ingestion of cannabis produces different effects than inhalation.  The advantages of ingestion are that no smoke is involved, no need for any equipment, the duration of the effect longer, and no odor.

Cannabis can be ingested in different ways as drinks, edibles, or capsules

  1. Sublingual application

Sublingual application also old and very effective way of administering cannabis medicine to human body.  Typically, concentrated cannabis extract obtain from flowers are used as the medium to deliver cannabis medicine to bloodstream through the mucous membrane (under the tongue) in the mouth.  During the sublingual application, the cannabis medicine goes directly into the bloodstream bypassing the liver.  Therefore, those chemicals avoid the first pass effect.  The onset of effect of sublingual application begins withing fifteen to sixty minutes and often last six to eight hours.

Uses of cannabis tinctures/concentrate made from alcohol or natural oil extraction of cannabis flowers is the common way to apply this method.

Advantages of sublingual application of cannabis are the avoidance of smoke, faster absorption than orally ingested forms, minimal first pass effect in liver and no odor.

  1. Topical application

Topical application is a successful way to use cannabis medicine for certain conditions.  There is clear evidence that the ECS system is located throughout the skin of human.  Therefore, it is an attractive target for topical cannabinoids applications.  Intoxication from topical cannabis is extremely rare.  No cannabinoids or their metabolites are observed on blood and urine of uses.  This shows the safeness of using this topical application any time of the day.  Topical applications of cannabis preparations are well practiced in traditional Asian and South American medicines for thousands of years.  Cannabis medicine can be made into ointments, salves, and lotions.  These can be applied to the skin to treat local pain, such as arthritis, or rashes, such as psoriasis or eczema.  In addition to that, they can be used to treat skin infections, including MRSA.

  1. Rectal suppositories

Uses of cannabis suppositories also another way of administering cannabis medicine to human body.  However, it is appearing in the literature that, poor absorption of phytocannabinoids to the body through this route.  Some studies show that no cannabinoids or their metabolites are observed on blood and urine after using this application method.  Effectiveness of this application method is still unknown.

However, rectal suppositories can have benefits for overcome some rectal conditions, such as inflammations on colon, and hemorrhoids.

  1. Transdermal patches

Application of transdermal patch is one of the successful ways to use cannabis medicine.  When use these patches, active ingredients pass through the skin and absorb into bloodstream.  This delivery method has more advantages than oral administration.  The compliance is easier for user, and first pass effect can be avoided.  In addition to that, patches may allow for a steady infusion of phytocannabinoids to be delivered over time.

Typically, these patches contain permeation enhancer to improve absorption and bioavailability of cannabis medicine.  Some of these compounds are carcinogen, and some can cause severe skin allergies.  Therefore, it is crucial to know the ingredient list of all transdermal patches to avoid unwanted chemical or allergen exposure.

  1. Summery

Cannabis based products mainly consist of phytocannabinoids, terpenes, and other plant originated compounds.  However, it is very common to combine and contaminate these products with other foreign matters during the production.  Therefore, it is important to read the Certificate of Analysis to know which cannabinoids and other compounds present in your product before you use it to obtain maximum benefits while limiting unwanted side effects.

There are many different delivery methods to use cannabis as recreational or medicinal approach.  Each of these methods alters the time to the onset of effects, the duration of the effects, and the effects themselves.  Therefore, experimenting with various consumption methods is the best way to know about consumer’s personal response.

  1. Cannabis based consumer products

Large number of cannabis-based consumer products are available in the market mainly for adult use.  However, especially designed CBD based products are available for children with the recommendation of qualified physicians.  These products can be arranged into several groups according to their administration method to human body.

  1. Consumer products used for inhalation of cannabis medicines

This is the very common delivery method used by most of the consumers around the world.  Several types of consumer products are available in the market, based on inhalation of cannabis medicines.

  • Cannabis flowers
  • Pre-Rolls
  • Cannabis Vapour Cartridges
  • Shatters
  • Hashish
  1. Consumer products used for ingestion of cannabis medicines

Extracted cannabis medicine can be used to prepare several types of sweets or savory foods.  There is no risk for utilizing these edibles for lungs of the consumer.  But dosing can be little tricky.  The following product forms are available in the market.

  • Gummies
  • Capsules
  • Chocolate
  • Cookies
  • Ice-cream pops
  • Cannabis infused soft drinks
  • Cannabis butter
  1. Consumer products used for sublingual application of cannabis medicines

Several popular sublingual based cannabis consumer products are available in the market.  These products are more effective than edibles.  In addition to that management of dosage is much easier and consistent.  Followings are commonly available forms.

  • Tinctures
  • Tablets
  • Lozenges
  • Sprays
  • Thin Strips
  1. Consumer products used for topical application of cannabis medicine

Cannabis topicals are typically non-intoxicating and non-psychoactive.  Use for localized application.  It allows consumer to experience the therapeutic effect of cannabis medicine.  Large number of products for topical application are available in the market.  Some commonly available products are listed below.

  • Lotions
  • Oils
  • Sprays
  • Soaps
  • Lubricants
  • Bath salts
  • Balms
  • salves
  1. Consumer product used for rectal application of cannabis medicine

Rectal application of cannabis medicine are effective treatments for IBS, hemorrhoids, constipation and other digestive and urinary issues.  Rectal suppositories are the common product available under this category.

  1. Consumer product used for transdermal application of cannabis medicine

Transdermal application products act differently than regular topical products.  Transdermal products are specially formulated with permeation enhancers to help medicine to fully penetrate the skin barrier and absorb directly into the bloodstream.  This route of administration eliminates the medicines to pass through digestive or respiratory systems.  Transdermal products with different combinations of cannabinoids and terpenes are readily available for consumer usage.  Some commonly available products are listed below.

  • Transdermal Patches
  • Transdermal Gels
  1. Summery

Cannabis-based consumer products available in the market are mainly for adult use.  However, especially designed CBD based products are available for children with the recommendation of qualified physicians.  Each of these products are designed to follows a specific administration method to deliver cannabis medicine into human body.  Therefore, experimenting with these consumer products is the best way to know about consumer’s personal response.

  1. References:

[1] W. A. Devane et al., Determination and Characterization of a Cannabinoid Receptor in Rat Brain, Molecular Pharmacology, 34, 605-613 (1988).

[2] W. A. Devane et al., Isolation and Structure of a Brain Constituent that Binds to the Cannabinoid Receptor, Science, 258, No 5090, 1946-1949 (1992).

[3] B. Goldstein., Cannabis is Medicine, Little, Brown Spark, Hachette Book Group Inc., NY, USA (2020).

[4] R. Mechoulam et al., Identification of an Endogenous 2-Monoglyceride, Present in Canine Gut, That Binds to Cannabinoid Receptors, Biochemical Pharmacology, 50, No 1, 83-90 (1995).

[5] I. Svizenska et al., Cannabinoid Receptors 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2), Their Distribution, Ligands, and Functional Involvement in Nervous System Structures – a Short Review, Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 90, No 4, 501-511 (2008).

[6] F. Grotenhermen et al. (Eds.), Cannabis and Cannabinoids, Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutic Potential, Routledge, NY, USA (2008).

[7] A. Q Yin et al., Integrating Endocannabinoid Signaling in the Regulation of Anxiety and Depression, Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 40, No 3, 336-341 (2019).

[8] D. Centonze et al., The Endocannabinoid System is Dysregulated in Multiple Sclerosis and in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis, Brain, 130, pt 10, 2543-2553 (2007).

[9] F. Montecucco et al., At the Heart of the Matter: The Endocannabinoid System in Cardiovascular Function and Dysfunction, Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 33, No 6, 331-340 (2012).

[10] I. Kaufmann et al., Enhanced Anandamide Plasma Levels in Patents with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Following Traumatic Injury: A Preliminary Report, European Surgical Research, 43, No 4, 325-329 (2009).

[11] P. Monteleone et al., Blood Level of the Endocannabinoid Anandamide are Increased in Anorexia Nervosa and in Binga-Eating Disorder, but not in Bulimia Nervosa, Neuropsychopharmacology, 30, No 6, 1216-1221 (2005).

[12] A. Ludanyi et al., Downregulation of the CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor and Related Molecular Elements of the Endocannabinoid System in Epileptic Human Hippocampus, Journal of Neuroscience, 20, No 12, 2976-2990 (2008).

[13] E. Fride et al., Endocannabinoids and Food Intake: Newborn Suckling and Appetite Regulation in Adulthood, Experimental Biology and Medicine, 230, No 4, 225-234 (2005).

[14] I. Kaufmann et al., Anandamide and Neutrophil Function in Patients with Fibromyalgia, Psychoneuroendocrinology, 33, No 5, 676-685 (2008).

[15] M. D. Sepers et al., Endocannabinoid-Specific Impairment in Synaptic Plasticity in Striatum of Huntington’s Disease Mouse Model, Journal of Neurosciences, 38, No 3, 544-554 (2018).

[16] M. A. Storr et al., The Role of the Endocannabinoid System in the Pathophysiology and Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Neurogastroenterology and Motility, 20, No 8, 857-868 (2008).

[17] P. Sarchilli et al., Endocannabinoids in Chronic Migraine: CFS Finding Suggests a System Failure, Neuropsychopharmacology, 32, No 6, 1384-1390 (2007).

[18] V. Chiurchiu et al., The Endocannabinoid System and its Therapeutic Exploration in Multiple Sclerosis: Clues for Other Neuroinflammatory Diseases, Progress in Neurobiology, 160, 82-100 (2018).

[19] M. A. Sticht et al., Endocannabinoid Mechanisms Influencing Nausea, International Review of Neurobiology, 125, 127-162 (2015).

[20] E. Murillo-Rodriguez (ed.), The Endocannabinoid System, Academic Press, Cambridge, MA (2017).

[21] D. Koethe et al., Familial Abnormalities of Endocannabinoid Signaling in Schizophrenia, World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 20, No 2, 117-125 (2019).

[22] R. G. Pertwee et al., The psychoactive plant cannabinoid, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, is antagonized by Delta8- and Delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin in mice in vivo, British Journal of Pharmacology, 150, 586–594 (2007).

[23] A. A. Izzo et al., Non-psychotropic plant cannabinoids: new therapeutic opportunities from an ancient herb,.Trends in Pharmacological Sciences.,30, 515–527 (2009).

[24] L. De Petrocellis et al., Non-CB1, non-CB2 receptors for endocannabinoids, plant cannabinoids, and synthetic cannabimimetics: focus on G-protein-coupled receptors and transient receptor potential channels. Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacolgy, 5, 103–121 (2010).

[25] L. De Petrocellis et al., Effects of cannabinoids and cannabinoid-enriched, Cannabis extracts on TRP channels and endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes. British Journal of Pharmacology, 163, 1476-1494 (2011).

[26] M. A. ElSohly et al., Phytochemistry of Cannabis Sativa L., Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products, 103, 1-36 (2017).

[27] P. M. Dewick, Medicinal Natural Products: A Biosynthetic Approach, 3rd Edition, John Wiley, West Sussex, UK (2009).

[28] M. Elsohly (ed.), Marijuana and the Cannabinoids, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, USA (2007).

[29] Z. Mehmedic et al., Potency trends of delta (9)-THC and other cannabinoids in confiscated cannabis preparations from 1993 to 2008, .Journal of Forensic Sciences, 55, 1209–1217 (2010)

[30] E. B. Russo, Taming THC: Potential Cannabis Synergy and Phytocannabinoid-Terpenoid Entourage Effects, British Journal of Pharmacology, 163, 1344-1364 (2011).

[31] J. H. Langenheim et al., Higher plant terpenoids: a phytocentric overview of their ecological roles, Journal of Chemical Ecology, 20, 1223–1279 (1994)

[32] H. Hendriks et al., Mono- and sesqui-terpene hydrocarbons of the essential oil of Cannabis sativa, Phytochemistry, 14, 814–815. (1975).

[33] H. Hendriks et al., Alkanes of the essential oil of Cannabis sativa, Phytochemistry, 16, 719–721 (1977).

[34] S, A, Ross et al., The volatile oil composition of fresh and air-dried buds of Cannabis sativa, Journal of Natural Products, 59, 49–51 (1996).

[35] M. Rothschild et al., Cannabis sativa: volatile compounds from pollen and entire male and female plants of two variants, Northern Lights and Hawaian Indica, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 147, 387–397 (2005).

[36] B. Singh et al., Plant Terpenes: Defense Responses, Phylogenetic Analysis, Regulation, and Clinical Applications, 3 Biotech, 5, No 2, 129-151 (2015).

[37] L. M. Lopes Campelo et al., Sedative, Anxiolytic, and Antidepressant Activities of Citrus Limon (Burn) Essential Oil in Mice, Die Pharmazie – An International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 66, No 8, 623-627 (2011).

[38] K. H. C. Baser et al., (Eds.), Handbook of Essential Oils: Science, Technology and Application, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA (2010).[39] B. F. Thomas et al., (Eds.), The Analytical Chemistry of Cannabis: Quality Assessment, Assurance, and Regulation of Medical Marijuana and Cannabinoid Preparations, Elsevier, MA, USA (2016).

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CBD and Cannabis for Cancer

CBD gummies and tinctures

Cannabis and CBD for Cancer

Cancer continued to be the second cause of death in north America and some parts of the world.  This is only second to heart diseases.  The word “cancer” is defined as the out of control (abnormal) growth of cells in certain part of the body.  Even though, huge amount of research is underway to find effective solutions to prevent and cure cancer, the rate of newly diagnosed patients is rising day by day continuously.

How Cannabis interacts with cancer treatment?

 

Buy CBD online

Cannabis has been investigated and used for tackling the symptoms associated with cancer and its treatments.  Some compounds in cannabis found to have anticancer properties and capable of killing, shutdown or control the development of cancer cells in human body.  These compounds are called phytocannabinoids.  In addition to that, cannabis possesses significant medicinal effects to manage cancer-treatment related side effects.  These valuable natural medicines will be a good choice to save people from preventable cancer related death and unnecessary suffering from side effects of treatments.

Cannabis and CBD can help to overcome some side effects associate with cancer treatments

Uses of cannabis-based medicine like CBD to overcome side effects associated with cancer treatment is one of the main applications of medical cannabis with CBD to help alleviate cancer symptoms.  The medical community practicing cannabis medicine has a good understanding about the ways in which cannabis and CBD helps to treat these conditions.  Therefor, cannabis and CBD may be a good choice to use for managing the following side effects arise after therapeutic treatment.

Cancer Pain

Cancer pain is caused by physical damage from the tumor, nerve damage due to cancer, inflammation due to chemicals released by tumors or chemotherapy.  Therefore, this pain is a mixed type and becoming a challenge to treat.  Moderate to severe pain occurs with most patients, causing a decrease in quality of life.  Use of Opioids is the typical treatment to relief cancer pain.  However, some patients experience inadequate pain relief and some side effects, such as nausea and constipation.

Even thought, scientific studies about the use of cannabis and CBD for cancer pain in human trial is limited, large number of independently observed results show that cannabis treatment is effective without causing significant adverse side effects.  Most of these observations are based on THC dominated or THC+CBD combined cannabis consumer products or extracts like CBD gummies or CBD tinctures [1-4].

Chemotherapy-induced Vomiting and Nausea

The antiemetic effect of cannabis is known for several decades after appearance of scientific publication at New England Journal of Medicine in 1975[5].  Following this observations, more scientific studies reveled that cannabinoid, such as THC can be used as an effective medicine to treat chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.  These observations led FDA to approve THC based synthetic drugs for human application [6].  More recent scientific studies show that THC rich cannabis is a highly effective medication for treating chemotherapy induced vomiting and nausea in human [7-12].

Anorexia and Weight Loss

It is common to see anorexia (lack or loss of appetite) and significant weight loss associated with cancer and also after its treatment.  This situation makes the patient’s body extremely weak due to low calorie intake.  Some synthetic medications (synthetic hormones that increase appetite) are available to treat the situation.  Over the past few decades, scientist have shown that cannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors play an important role in the desire for food. 

Several clinical Investigations have shown that, improvement of appetite and gaining body weight and energy after using synthetic THC as medication on cancer patients following their therapy [13-19].  This observation shows that cannabis is useful and capable of improving appetite of cancer patients throughout their life.  Many cancer patients struggling with these issues claim that inhaled cannabis is extremely helpful for enhancing appetite, stabilizing weight, and enjoying their meals rather than fearing them but also CBD has been effective as well. 

Cannabis for cure cancer

A large number of anecdotal reports show that cancer patients using concentrated cannabis oil specially containing THC, CBD and some other cannabinoids, effectively resulting in complete resolution of their cancers. 

In addition to that, significant amount of scientific research show that phytocannabinoids, especially THC and CBD have anticancer properties.  These studies show that cannabinoids are capable of killing cancer cells, inhibiting growth of tumors, inhibiting metastasis and cancer cell migration, and inhibiting growth of blood vessels that feed tumors [20]

Furthermore, some studies show that phytocannabinoids can work synergistically with certain chemotherapies and radiation to enhance their anticancer effect [21].  Due to cannabis being classified as control substances, clinical research of cannabis with human trials has been prohibited for several decades.  Therefore, scientific clinical results regarding anticancer properties of cannabis on human are not available.  Scientific evidence for anticancer effect of cannabis has been reported for several type of cancers using animal models.  These studies have reported that cannabis chemicals have effective anticancer properties on breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer, skin cancer, glioblastoma multiforme, melanoma, neuroblastoma, and leukemia [22-31].  However, these observations must be tested with human clinical trials.

Despite the lack of human clinical trials, many desperate cancer patients are using cannabis to not only treat their symptoms but also directly treat their cancers.

CBD and Cancer
CBD and Cancer

Summery

Cannabis has been used for tackling the symptoms associated with cancer and its treatments.  Some phytocannabinoid compounds in cannabis found to have anti cancer properties and capable of killing, shutdown or control the development of cancer cells.  In addition to that, cannabis possesses significant medicinal effects to manage cancer treatment related side effects, such as pain, chemotherapy-induced vomiting, nausea, anorexia and significant weight loss.  Therefore, these valuable natural medicines will be a choice to save people from preventable cancer related death and unnecessary suffering from side effects of treatments.

References

[1] R. Noyes Jr. et al., Analgesic Effect of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 15, Nos 2-3, 139-143 (1975)

[2] R. Noyes Jr. et al., The Analgesic Properties of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Codeine, Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 18, No 1, 84-89 (1975)

[3] J. R. Johnson et al., An Open-Label Extension Study to Investigate the Long-Term Safety and Tolerability of THC/CBD Oromucosal Spray and Oromucosal THC Spray in Patients with Terminal Cancer-Related Pain Refractory to Strong Opioid Analgesics, Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 46, No 2, 207-218 (2013)

[4] J. R. Johnson et al., Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study of the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of THC:CBD Extract and THC Extract in Patients with Intractable Cancer-Related Pain, Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 39, No 2, 167-179 (2010)

[5] S. E. Sallan et al., Antiemetic Effect of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Patients Receiving Cancer Chemotherapy, New England Journal of Medicine, 293, No 16, 795-797 (1975)

[6] H. S. Chan et al., Naboline Versus Prochlorperazine for Control of Cancer Chemotherapy-Induced Emesis in Children: A Double-Blind, Crossover Trial, Pediatrics, 79, No 6, 946-952 (1987)

[7] M. R. Tramer et al., Cannabinoids for Control of Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting: Quantitative Systematic Review, BMJ, 323, No 7303, 16-21 (2001)

[8] A. E. Chen et al., Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol as an Antiemetic in Cancer Patients Receiving High-Dose Methotrexate: A Prospective, Randomized Evaluation, Annals of Internal Medicine, 91, No 6, 819-824 (1979) 

[9] V. Vinciguerra et al., Inhalation Marijuana as an Antiemetic for Cancer Chemotherapy, New York State Journal of Medicine, 88, No 10, 525-527 (1988)

[10] A. Abrahamov et al., An Efficient New Cannabinoid Antiemetic in Pediatric Oncology, Life Science, 56, Nos 23-24, 2097-2102 (1995)

[11] E. Meiri et al., Efficacy of Dronabinol Alone and in Combination with Ondansetron Versus Ondansetron Alone for Delayed Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and omitting, Current Medical Research and Opinion, 23, No 3, 533-543 (2007)

[12] National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research, Washington, DC, National Academic Press, (2017)

[13] R. Gorter, Management of Anorexia-Cachexia Associated with Cancer and HIV Infection, Oncology, 5, No 9, 13-17 (1991)

[14] T. F. Plasse et al., Recent Clinical Experience with Dronabinol, Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behaviour, 40, No 3, 695-700 (1991)

[15] K. Nelson et al., A Phase II Study of Delta-9-Cannabinol for Appetite Stimulation in Cancer-Associated Anorexia, Journal of Palliative Care, 10, No 1, 14-18 (1994)

[16] A. Jatoi et al., Dronabinol Versus Megestrol Acetate Versus Combination Therapy for Cancer Associated Anorexia: A North Central Cancer Treatment Group Study, Journal of Clinical Oncology, 20, No 2, 567-573 (2002)

[17] T. D. Brisbois et al., Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol May Palliate Altered Chemosensory Perception in Cancer Patients: Results of a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Trial, Annals of Oncology, 22, No 9, 2086-2093 (2011)

[18] S. Strasser et al., Comparison of Orally Administered Cannabis Extract and Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Treating Patients with Cancer-Related Anorexia-Cachexia Syndrome: A Multicenter, Phase III, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial from the Cannabis-in-Cachexia-Study-Group, Journal of Clinical Oncology, 24, No 21, 3394-3400 (2006)

[19] G. Bar-Sela et al., The Effect of Dosage-Controlled Cannabis Capsules on Cancer-Related Cachexia and Anorexia Syndrome in Advanced Cancer Patients: Pilot Study, Integrative Cancer Therapies, 18, 1-8 (2019)

[20] S. D. McAllister et al., The Antitumor Activity of Plant-Derived Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoids, Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, 10, No 2, 255-267 (2015)

[21] K. A. Scott et al., The Combination of Cannabidiol and Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Enhances the Anticancer Effects of Radiation in an Orthotopic Murine Glioma Model, Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, 13, No 21, 2955-2967 (2014)

[22] S. Blasco-Benito et al., Appraising the Entourage Effect: Antitumor Action of a Pure Cannabinoid Versus a Botanical Drug Preparation in Preclinical Models of Brest Cancer, Biochemical Pharmacology, 157, 285-293 (2018)

[23] A. Greenhough et al., The Cannabinoid Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Inhibits RAS-MAPK and P13K-AKT Survival Signalling and Induces BAD-Mediated Apoptosis in Colorectal Cancer Cells, International Journal of Cancer, 121, No 10, 2172-2180 (2007)

[24] S. D. McAllister et al., Cannabinoids Selectively Inhibit Proliferation and Induced Death of Cultured Human Glioblastoma Multiform Cells, Journal of Neuro-Oncology, 74, No 1, 31-40 (2005)

[25] T. Powles et al., Cannabis-Induced Cytotoxicity in Leukemic Cell Lines: Role of the Cannabinoid Receptors and the MAPK Pathway, Blood, 105, No 3, 1214-1221 (2005)

[26] M. Haustein et al., Cannabinoids Increases Lung Cancer Cell Lysis by Lymphokine-Activated Killer Cells via Upregulation of ICAM-1, Biochemical Pharmacology, 92, No 2, 312-325 (2014)

[27] J. L. Armstrong et al., Exploiting Cannabinoid-Induced Cytotoxic Autophagy to Drive Melanoma Cell Death, Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 135, No 6, 1629-1637 (2015)

[28] T. Fisher et al., In Vitro and In Vivo Efficacy of Non-Psychoactive Cannabidiol in Neuroblastoma, Current Oncology (Toronto) 23, suppl 2, S15-22 (2016)

[29] A. Carracedo et al., Cannabinoids Induced Apoptosis of Pancreatic Tumor Cells via Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Related Genes, Cancer Research, 66, No 13, 6748-6755 (2006)

[30] L. De Petrocellis et al., Non-THC Cannabinoid inhibit Prostate Carcinoma Growth In Vitro and In Vivo: Pro-Apoptotic Effects and Underlying Mechanisms, British Journal of Pharmacology, 168, No 1, 79-102 (2013)

[31] M. L. Casanova et al., Inhibition of Skin Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis In Vivo by Activation of Cannabinoid Receptors, Journal of Clinical Investigation, 111, No 1, 43-50 (2003)

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The CBD and Medical Cannabis in Canada

Medical CBD
  1. The Recreational and Medical Cannabis in Canada

Cannabis is a unique plant and carries vast amount of naturally occurring compounds with biological activity on human being.  Most of these compounds alone or as whole are currently being used in cannabis industry in Canada in medicinal or recreational applications.  Canadian cannabis industry is regulated by federal government under Canadian cannabis Act[1].  Both medical and recreational cannabis industries in Canada are very closely related to each other.  However, there are several differences in some areas of medical and recreational cannabis industries, especially when considering product access, price and usage[2]  Getting to know about these differences are highly beneficial, specially to medical cannabis consumers as well and cannabis product like edibles, and CBD.

  1. Recreational Cannabis

Recreational cannabis use is similar to consuming alcohol for social or personal satisfaction.  Main intention of people who consume cannabis recreationally is to get psychoactive or intoxicating effect.  Recreational cannabis consumers do not expect any medicinal benefits of cannabis.  However, they experience some medicinal benefits of cannabis, indirectly.  As recreational cannabis does not address health related issues, it is prohibited for any recreational product to make claims about potential therapeutic effects.

According to Canadian cannabis act, any person who is at the legal age of purchase have access to recreational cannabis[1].  Each province has their own regulatory systems regarding the sales of recreational cannabis products.

  1. Medical Cannabis and CBD

Most traditional applications have shown that biologically active compounds in cannabis possess positive therapeutic effects on certain symptoms and illnesses in human.  Scientifically designed, clinical study-based evidence are still necessary to fully understand the medicinal effects of cannabis and non psychoactive products like CBD.  It is well known to scientists that some compounds in cannabis have ability to communicate with Endo Cannabinoid System (ECS) and other receptors in human body.  Several scientific studies have shown that cannabis helps to regulate some human body-related functions, conditions, and physiological pathways.

  1. Cannabis and CBD helps to regulate some important body functions
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Cannabis may help to regulate the following functions of human body[3].

  • Appetite and digestion
  • Sleep
  • Pain sensation
  • Inflammation and other immune responses
  • Mood
  • Metabolism
  • Learning and memory
  • Reproduction system function
  1. Cannabis helps to regulate some important physiological pathways

Cannabis may helps to regulate many of the most important physiological pathways, including[4]:

  • Cardiovascular activity
  • Pain perception
  • Hormonal regulation
  • Gastrointestinal activity
  • Maintenance of bone mass
  • Protection of neurons
  • Metabolism control
  • Immune function
  • Inhibition of tumor cells
  • Inflammatory reactions
  1. Cannabis and CBD helps to regulate some medical conditions

Scientific evidence shows that some medical conditions have clear relationship with ECS dysfunction of the human body.  Therefore, cannabis can use as medication to regulate these conditions.  Some of those conditions are[4-19],

  • Anxiety and depression
  • Autoimmune diseases
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Complex regional pain syndrome
  • Eating disorders
  • Epilepsy
  • Failure to thrive in newborns
  • Fibromyalgia/myofascial pain syndrome
  • Huntington’s diseases
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Migraine headaches
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Nausea and motion sickness
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Schizophrenia
  1. How to get medical cannabis authorization and access

According to Canadian cannabis act, it is necessary to obtain medical cannabis authorization from Health Canada, to access medical cannabis program.  Therefore, the patient should first visit a certified physician or a healthcare practitioner to conduct necessary evaluation process to decide consumption method and dosage.  This is necessary to prepare authorization documents.

Once the authorization is ready, the patient should register with a licenced producer to access medications.  The patient is allowed to register with more than one licenced producer to split the prescription to obtain different varieties and also to have reliable access to cannabis.

  1. Key Advantages and Benefits of Medical Cannabis and CBD

Compared to recreational cannabis industry, there are several advantages and benefits by joining Health Canada medical cannabis program, especially when considering prices, product access, and usage.  These are highly beneficial to consumers.  Every registered patient can enjoy these privileges.

  1. Competitive Pricing and Tax Deductions
  1. Lower prices

According to Health Canada regulations, all cannabis-based consumer product producers must follow several highly regulated production steps before the products reached consumer market.  Cultivation, processing, storage, analysis, and packaging are major steps one must follow during the production of cannabis.  In addition to that there are several other steps to follow during preparation of other consumer products.  These steps are time consuming, labour intensive and costly.  Also, substantial amount of retail markup occurs each time when the product changes from hands to hand.

In medical cannabis industry, the customer is directly connected with the producer which eliminates middlemen and retail markups.  Therefore, the medical cannabis customer can get their medicine for a lower price compared to the price of recreational products.

  1. Patients are awarded certain human rights protections 

Due to financial burdens, some patients are not able to afford their medications they need.  To overcome these situations, Government of Canada is awarding a great human right protection program called Compassionate Care Benefit Program.  This program supports veterans and patients with lower income to purchase their medications for affordable and concession price.  To receive this opportunity, the patient should enroll with Health Canada medical cannabis program.

  1. Medical cannabis and CBD  is a tax-deductible expense

Medical cannabis is considered as regular medicine by Canada Revenue Agency (CRA).  This is great news for patients use cannabis as medicine under Canadian cannabis act.  Therefore, patients who use cannabis as medicine can claim their expenses as deductible medical expenses.  According to CRA, cannabis medicine purchased from a licenced producer under the recommendation of a healthcare practitioner, can be claimed as legitimate medicinal expense.  These claimable items include cannabis flowers, seeds, oils, ingestible and any other cannabis consumer product purchased from a licenced producer.  In addition to that only Health Canada approved vaporizers are considered as medical devices and eligible as medical expense.

Please note that the information above is only for informational purpose and not as legal advice.  The patients should consult their tax consultants for any questions regarding this during the preparation of their taxes.  Also visit the CRA website for additional information.

  1. Excise tax may be absorbed by Licensed Producers

Excise taxes are applied at the point of manufacture and not at the end of the sale.  Currently, Canada imposes excise tax on cannabis products too.  Cannabis excise taxes are collected by the federal government and payable by licence producers.  Excise taxes are varied from province to province and default is 1$ per gram or 10% of the sales price, whatever is higher.  This tax amount is already added to the product price tag.  But the good news is some licenced producers are voluntary willing to absorb this excise tax to provide their product with a competitive price.  Only Health Canada authorized medical cannabis patients who registered with licenced producers will be able to get this opportunity.

  1. Insurance coverage for selected health conditions 

Due to lack of Drug Identification Number (DIN), medical cannabis does not consider as a pharmaceutical product.  Therefore, no health insurance providers offer any package to cover medical cannabis under prescription drug category.  However, many insurance providers have started to offer group benefit plans that cover medical cannabis under Healthcare Spending Account for several health conditions such as,

  • Rheumatoid Arthritis with pain
  • Cancer with severe pain
  • Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting
  • Multiple Sclerosis with spasticity and/or neuropathic pain
  • HIV/AIDS with anorexia, neuropathic pain
  • Palliative care

In addition to that some insurance companies provide optional coverage for medical cannabis with their health coverage plans.

Patients are advised to discuss with their medical insurance provider regarding this coverage.

  1. Product Accessibility
  1. Accessibility to wider spectrum of products (customized products are available)

Several types of cannabis-based consumer products are available in the market and uses are able to select products according to their preference.  All these products are grouped according to their delivery method.  These different delivery methods may change the overall experience and effects[3].

Recreational cannabis uses typically use smokable flowers, vapor products and some edibles as their preferred consumption form.  However, medical consumers always prefer more user-friendly products which do not involve smoking and other vapor inhalation methods.  Therefore, most licenced producers have developed a large number of user-friendly consumer product such as cannabis extracts, tinctures, cannabis oil, topical creams, gel capsules, and edibles allowing medical cannabis patients to select their medicine according to personal preference.  In addition to, that some licence producers are willing to prepare customized medical cannabis consumer products respecting patient’s requests.

  1. Quality of the product is ensured (products are made according to Health Canada Regulations)

Cannabis industry is a strictly regulated industry in Canada under Cannabis Act[1].  Each process involved starting from cultivation to retail market is inspected and regulated by Health Canada.  It is mandatory to follow rigorous quality assurance and controlling process during the production of cannabis-based consumer product for human use.  These cannabis consumer products undergo mandatory testing for agrochemicals, microbials, solvent residues, and heavy metal contamination to ensure that each product meets the necessary requirements to achieve the highest quality before it reaches consumer market.

Medical cannabis patients always get the best quality products when they directly deal with licenced producers.

  1. Products are always ready for the patient

Medical cannabis program existed in Canada, long time before it was legalized to recreational use.  This was conducted under ACMPR licensing program by health Canada[2].  After legalization of cannabis, the Health Canada has granted approval for large number of new cannabis cultivators to produce enough cannabis to satisfy the demand of both medical and recreational market.  Presently, no shortage of medical cannabis in the market and many producers are willing to prioritize medical cannabis sales over recreational.  This means that medical cannabis is always in stock and ready without any shortage.  This is a great assurance given by licenced producers for medical cannabis patients.

  1. Support and education available to patients

As a regulation, medical cannabis patients are regularly evaluated, and monitored by certified healthcare practitioners.  Providing up-to-date education based on scientific research by focusing on each individual patient is one of the main tasks of a certified healthcare practitioner [2].  This is a huge advantage of a medical cannabis user.  Medical cannabis patients have great opportunity to receive valuable information from experienced medical practitioner to find the right cannabis product, proper dosage and correct cannabis strain to get maximum benefit from their medicine.  Such a monitoring system does not exist for recreational cannabis users.  This can lead to potential cannabis disorders in recreational uses.  Therefore, it is use’s responsibility to find the correct threshold and other necessary information regarding usage and other side effect of cannabis.  

  1. Convenience and fast delivery (prioritized and secured)

The Canadian primary mail delivery service, Canada post has been successfully shipping and delivering online ordered medical cannabis parcels to patients since 2013.  In addition to that Canada post has prioritized pickup and secured delivery service for medical cannabis.  Also, the parcel is under tracking until it reaches patient hand.  This program guarantees that medicine is secured and safely arrive to your doorstep without any delay.  The patient does not need to leave the house to get their medication.  The recipient is subjected to a verification process before receiving medication.  It is mandatory to provide government issued photo ID and the signature of the recipient to complete the verification process.  This delivery process is specially, very convenient for patients with disability and special attention.

  1. Medical usage of cannabis
  1. Medical cannabis and CBD uses can use their medicine mostly anywhere within Canada as a medical patient

Recreational cannabis uses must obey strict consumption regulation enforced by federal and provincial governments to consume cannabis products in public areas.  Some laws are varied from province to province.  However, authorized medical cannabis patients have more freedom and flexibility regarding where they can consume their medicine.  Some provinces within Canada allows medical cannabis patients to utilize their inhalation products in any public area.  In addition to that, with proper authorization documents, medical cannabis patients can use their medication at work and in most public places excluding parks, hospitals, and playgrounds.  It is your responsibility and understanding that medical cannabis consumption must not carried out in the presence of children.

  1. Medical cannabis and CBD uses can travel anywhere within Canada with their medicine

Canadian laws allow all cannabis and CBD consumers to carry their consumables when they travel by any public or private transportation system (car, train, plane etc.) within Canada.  These cannabis products must be secured in unreachable location of the vehicle to avoid use by anyone in the vehicle during the travel.  According to the law, recreational uses are allowed to carry 30 grams of dried cannabis.  However, this amount is much higher for medical uses.  Medical cannabis uses are permitted to carry 150 grams of dried cannabis during the travel within Canada[2].  This is a great privilege of being an authorized medical cannabis user.

It is important to mention here that these laws are only valid within Canada and not accepted by any international law enforcement authority.  Traveling with cannabis (medical or recreational) internationally will result in serious criminal charges both at home and abroad.  This rule also applies when flying from Canada to international country where cannabis is legalized.  This rule even applies to flying or driving to the United States, where some states have legalized cannabis.

  1. Personal possession limit for medical user is higher than recreational uses

According to Canada Cannabis Act, all cannabis uses are allowed to posses 30 grams of dried cannabis or equivalent cannabis product at any given time.  This amount is the limit for recreational users.  However, medical cannabis users are permitted to posses 30 day-supply of dry cannabis up to 150 gram maximum or equivalent cannabis products[2].  The maximum daily allowance for medical cannabis patient is generally up to 5 grams of dry cannabis per day.  This is an average value and some time this number can be higher.  Even with a higher amount of cannabis per day, the maximum possession limit for medical cannabis is 150 grams of dry cannabis or equivalent cannabis product at any given time.

  1. Storage limit for medical user is higher than recreational uses

Even though, adults are allowed to purchase or posses 30 grams of dry cannabis, the personal legal storage limit for recreational cannabis user is 150 grams of cannabis at their residence at any given time.  This rule may vary over different provinces of Canada.

However, according to new cannabis regulations, no personal storage limit for medical cannabis user and they can store as much cannabis as they want at home[2].  This is good news as well as big advantage for medical cannabis users.

  1. Growing limit for medical user is higher than recreational uses.

The main difference between growing cannabis for recreational use and growing with a medical cannabis authorization is the amount of cannabis plants that can be grown.  A recreationally grower can only have 4 plants per household.  But there is no set number of plants that is allowed to grow with the medical cannabis authorization.  The main factor for how many plants a patient can grow is the prescription size.  The higher the prescription, the more plants that patient can grow[2].  Also, medical cannabis patients can assign a certified grower to cultivate their cannabis supply for them.

  1. Summery

Canadian cannabis industries are regulated by federal government under Canadian Cannabis Act.  The industry is mainly focusing on to provide service to medical and recreational based consumer market.  Both medical and recreational cannabis industries are very closely related to each other.  However, there are several differences in some areas of medical and recreational cannabis industries, especially when considering product access, price, and usage.  These differences are highly beneficial, specially to medical cannabis consumers.  This document points out several important benefits offer to authorize medical cannabis consumers by medical cannabis industry.  Every registered patient can enjoy these privileges.

  1. References:

[1] https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/C-24.5/FullText.html

[2] https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/drugs-medication/cannabis/medical-use-cannabis.html#_Access_to_cannabis

[3] B. Goldstein., Cannabis is Medicine, Little, Brown Spark, Hachette Book Group Inc., NY, USA (2020).

[4] F. Grotenhermen et al. (Eds.), Cannabis and Cannabinoids, Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutic Potential, Routledge, NY, USA (2008).

[5] A. Q Yin et al., Integrating Endocannabinoid Signaling in the Regulation of Anxiety and Depression, Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 40, No 3, 336-341 (2019).

[6] D. Centonze et al., The Endocannabinoid System is Dysregulated in Multiple Sclerosis and in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis, Brain, 130, pt 10, 2543-2553 (2007).

[7] F. Montecucco et al., At the Heart of the Matter: The Endocannabinoid System in Cardiovascular Function and Dysfunction, Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 33, No 6, 331-340 (2012).

[8] I. Kaufmann et al., Enhanced Anandamide Plasma Levels in Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Following Traumatic Injury: A Preliminary Report, European Surgical Research, 43, No 4, 325-329 (2009).

[9] P. Monteleone et al., Blood Level of the Endocannabinoid Anandamide are Increased in Anorexia Nervosa and in Binga-Eating Disorder, but not in Bulimia Nervosa, Neuropsychopharmacology, 30, No 6, 1216-1221 (2005).

[10] A. Ludanyi et al., Downregulation of the CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor and Related Molecular Elements of the Endocannabinoid System in Epileptic Human Hippocampus, Journal of Neuroscience, 20, No 12, 2976-2990 (2008).

[11] E. Fride et al., Endocannabinoids and Food Intake: Newborn Suckling and Appetite Regulation in Adulthood, Experimental Biology and Medicine, 230, No 4, 225-234 (2005).

[12] I. Kaufmann et al., Anandamide and Neutrophil Function in Patients with Fibromyalgia, Psychoneuroendocrinology, 33, No 5, 676-685 (2008).

[13] M. D. Sepers et al., Endocannabinoid-Specific Impairment in Synaptic Plasticity in Striatum of Huntington’s Disease Mouse Model, Journal of Neurosciences, 38, No 3, 544-554 (2018).

[14] M. A. Storr et al., The Role of the Endocannabinoid System in the Pathophysiology and Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Neurogastroenterology and Motility, 20, No 8, 857-868 (2008).

[15] P. Sarchilli et al., Endocannabinoids in Chronic Migraine: CFS Finding Suggests a System Failure, Neuropsychopharmacology, 32, No 6, 1384-1390 (2007).

[16] V. Chiurchiu et al., The Endocannabinoid System and its Therapeutic Exploration in Multiple Sclerosis: Clues for Other Neuroinflammatory Diseases, Progress in Neurobiology, 160, 82-100 (2018).

[17] M. A. Sticht et al., Endocannabinoid Mechanisms Influencing Nausea, International Review of Neurobiology, 125, 127-162 (2015).

[18] E. Murillo-Rodriguez (ed.), The Endocannabinoid System, Academic Press, Cambridge, MA (2017).

[19] D. Koethe et al., Familial Abnormalities of Endocannabinoid Signaling in Schizophrenia, World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 20, No 2, 117-125 (2019).

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CBD to help treat diabetes.

CBD to help treat diabetes

 

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Glucose is vital to your health because it’s an important source of energy for the cells that make up your muscles and tissues. It’s also your brain’s main source of fuel.

The underlying cause of diabetes varies by type. But, no matter what type of diabetes you have, it can lead to excess sugar in your blood. Too much sugar in your blood can lead to serious health problems.

Chronic diabetes conditions include type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Potentially reversible diabetes conditions include prediabetes and gestational diabetes. Prediabetes occurs when your blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes. 

You may have heard about using CBD to help treat diabetes. Well, we have some good news!

Some studies support CBD having positive effects on the condition by:

☑ Decreasing high blood sugar; ☑ Lowering cholesterol and “bad fat” levels; ☑ Increasing Insulin production.

What’s more, one study showed CBD kept chronic inflammation and neuropathic pain at bay, which tends to affect the hands and feet of people with diabetes.

If you don’t have this disease, then CBD may also act in a way to decrease the risk of getting diabetes by promoting ”good fat”. CBD oil can hCBD and Diabeteselp the body turn white fat into slimming brown fat.

This can boost your body’s ability to use glucose.

On the other hand, most studies of CBD’s effects on diabetes have been in mice or rats.
This is a problem because laboratory conditions, differences between animals and humans, and other things can affect study results. Just because CBD works for them doesn’t mean it will work in humans.
Of course, it is best to simply try and see for yourself. Everyone is different, and these studies at least show that there might be a possibility for a positive change.
So if you want to start your CBD journey today, click the button below!

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CBD and Coconut Oil

CBD and Coconut

CBD and Coconut Oil 

You might have heard of coconut oil and its benefits, but what are they exactly? To clear things up, today, we want to highlight the top 4 you should look out for.

1. Contains medium-chain fatty acids

Unlike long-chain fatty acids, these medium-chain free fatty acids and monoglycerides are absorbed intact from the small intestine and do not undergo degradation and re-esterification processes.

They are directly used in the body to produce energy and are widely used in infant formulas, nutritional drinks for athletes, and intravenous lipid infusions.

Simply put, you will experience higher levels of energy more quickly.

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2. Has anti-inflammatory properties

About 50% of the medium-chain fatty acids in coconut oil are a type called lauric acid, which contributes to the oil’s anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anti-fungal properties.

3. A good antioxidant source

Coconut oil is a good source of antioxidants, which help neutralize damaging molecules called free radicals. This, in turn, helps ward off several chronic and degenerative diseases.

4. Beneficial for heart health

In recent years, coconut oil has been touted as beneficial for heart health. That’s because some evidence suggests it may lower LDL (bad) cholesterol levels and increase HDL (good) cholesterol levels.

All in all, coconut oil is a great addition to your diet. That’s why we crafted a powerful CBD softgel supplement rich with coconut oil and with 30mg of CBD per serving.

Enjoy this amazing combination today by clicking the button below!

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CBD for sleep

CBD for sleep

Good sleep is crucially important to living and to living healthy [1].  Poor sleep always associated with increased risk of elevating some conditions that negatively impact healthy life. 

Conditions such as, anxiety, depression, poor memory, increased risk of accidents, anger, and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases are augmented with poor sleep.  The hypnotics group medications are typically use as sleep aids and available either as over-the-counter drugs or prescribed medications. 

These medications are well-known to create unwanted side effects.  In addition to that, research shows that taking hypnotics has three-fold increased risk of death as well as cancer [2-3].  Therefore, people are searching for effective natural medicine, such as cannabis to tackle this situation.

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Do cannabis and cannabinoids help for sleep?

Cannabis is widely used as a sleep aid by both recreational and medical cannabis users.  However, not everyone wants to use cannabis to get high to sleep. In comes in CBD which has no psychoactive properties to help you get a good night’s sleep.  Numerous studies on the effect of cannabinoids for sleep has been reported.  However, most of these studies are mainly based on individual observations and not been conducted as proper clinical evaluations.  Also, it is difficult to draw any useful conclusions since some findings from these studies are quite conflicting.


How does CBD help for sleep?

 

CBD appears to improve sleep in certain cases.  Patients who use CBD for certain health conditions such as pain, multiple sclerosis (MS), and cancer claim that this helps them to fall sleep faster with long, better-quality sleep without any disturbing wake up.

Some patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), have reported that use of cannabis as medication and CBD, help them to prevent from nightmares and improve the quality of the sleep. In addition to that, some studies have shown that cannabis and CBD reduces the frequency and intensity of nightmares [4].

In addition, CBD can serve multiple purposes, especially replacing both pain and sleep medication.  Some patients who use CBD as medication for pain, chronic illness, anxiety, and other conditions as primary application are claiming that they have quick onset of sleep and are able to stay sleep through out the night [5].

 

How does synthetic or isolated cannabinoid help for sleep?

 

Some studies conducted with synthetic cannabinoid drugs such as Nabiximol, and Sativex have shown a significant and positive impact on sleep [6]. Even though, these studies were conducted for another condition and not directly focusing to measure quality of sleep, they provide a positive indication about the effect of cannabinoids on better-quality of sleep.

CBN also has been promoted as a sleep aid, but no studies support this claim. However, a study reported that CBN enhanced the effect of sedation caused by THC [7]. Despite the finding from studies, products containing higher amounts of CBN are gaining popularity for treating insomnia.

Low dose of CBD appears to promote alertness and higher dose shows sedating effect on some people [5]. This effect seems to vary from person to person.

Does CBD help for sleep apnea?

Sleep apnea is a disorder in which breathing is repeatedly interrupted during sleep, leaving the affected individual tired in daytime. A study on animal model shows that endocannabinoids can suppress sleep apnea [8]. In addition to that, studies carried on human models using synthetic cannabinoid, dronabinol has shown that this compound has the ability to reduce sleep apnea with some side effects.  This may be due to the use of synthetic cannabinoids. However, clinical studies using natural cannabis products like CBD have shown that they effectively reduce sleep apnea and do not show similar side effects [9-10].

How does CBD work in the body as a sleep aid?

Sleep promoting effects of cannabis are due to interaction of cannabinoids with cannabinoid receptors in the brain. When this interaction occurs, they signal to increase the adenosine level and suppress the brain’s arousal system.  Collectively, these effects may help the user to feel sedation or sleepiness.

However, the effects may depend on the type of cannabis used. Some cannabis contains higher level of THC, and some contain higher level of CBD.  Sleep promoting effects of these cannabis are different.

Which cannabis is best for sleep?

There are different subspecies of cannabis; sativa, indica and ruderalis, & each of these produce different effects.  The most common subspecies are indica and sativa.  These subspecies also split into thousands of different strains, as indica or sativa dominant.

Indica strains produce a calming effect.  Certain indica strains can help to induce sleep or tackle insomnia.  Some consumers prefer to use indica for pain management and relaxation.  Therefore, these characters usually make indica-dominant strains as preferable cannabis for medicinal applications.

Sativa strains commonly produce a feeling of euphoria and a head-focused high when consumed.  People tend to use sativa to boost energy levels, creativity, and divergent thinking.  Therefore, sativa strains are not the first choice for medical applications, unless dealing with specific medical conditions.

Due to its relaxing effects, indica strains may be considered the best cannabis to use as sleep aid [11].  However, individuals who use cannabis to avoid nightmares may prefer sativa strains [12].

How to use cannabis as sleep aid?

Effectiveness of cannabis medicine as sleep aid is always dependent on the way of use.  Cannabis can be inhaled (smoke or vaporize), ingested, or use as a sublingual product.  Each format has different benefits and drawbacks. 

Inhalation or sublingual use of THC rich cannabis products helps with the onset of sleep.  Ingestion of cannabis edibles often will prevent waking up in the middle of night due to their long-lasting effect.  However, it can take about one to two hours to be effective.  Therefore, this medicine should be ingested at least few hours before the desired bedtime.  In addition to that, all patients using cannabis to help with sleep must experiment with different dose and administrative methods, to find their individual needs.

Summery

Cannabis is widely used as a sleep aid by both recreational and medical cannabis users.  Numerous individual observations on the effect of cannabis and cannabinoids for sleep has been reported.  In addition, sleep promoting effect of cannabis and cannabinoids on human is observed during the use of cannabis medicine in different applications.  All these reported information tell us that cannabis and some cannabinoids possess sleep promoting effects and able to be use as sleep aids. 

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References

[1] M. A. Dew et al., Healthy Older Adults Sleep Predicts All-Cause Mortality at 4 to 19 Years of Follow-Up, Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, No 1, 63-73 (2003)

[2] D. F. Kripke et al., Hypnotics Association with Mortality or Cancer: A Matched Cohort Study, BMJ Open, 2, No 1 (2012)

[3] L. Mallon et al., Is Usage of Hypnotics Associated with Mortality?, Sleep Medicine, 10, No 3, 279-286 (2009)

[4] G. A. Fraser, The Use of a Synthetic Cannabinoid in the Management of Treatment Resistant Nightmares in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics, No 15, 84-88 (2009)

[5] B. Goldstein., Cannabis is Medicine, Little, Brown Spark, Hachette Book Group Inc., NY, USA (2020).

[6] P. J. Gates et al., The Effects of Cannabinoid Administration on Sleep: A Systemic Review of Human Studies, Sleep Medicine Reviews, 18, No 6, 477-487 (2014)

[7] R. E. Musty et al., Interactions of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabinol in Man, in The Pharmacology of Marihuana, vol 2, M. C. Braude et al. (Eds.), Raven Pres, NY, USA (1976)

[8] D. W. Carley et al., Functional Role for Cannabinoids in Respiratory Stability During Sleep, Sleep, 25, No 4, 391-398 (2002)

[9] B. Prasad et al., Proof of Concept Trial of Dronabinol in Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Frontiers in Psychiatry, 4, 1-5 (2013)

[10] D. W. Carley et al., Pharmacotherapy of Apnea by Cannabimimetic Enhancement, the PACE Clinical Trial: Effects of Dronabinol in Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Sleep, 41, No 1, 1-13 (2018)

[11] D. J. Sholler et al., Use patterns, beliefs, experiences, and behavioral economic demand of indica and sativa cannabis: A cross-sectional survey of cannabis users, Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 10.1037/pha0000462. Advance online publication.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33856822/

[12] K. A. Belendiuk et al., Cannabis species and cannabinoid concentration preference among sleep-disturbed medicinal cannabis users, Addictive Behaviors, 50, 178–181 (2015) 

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CBD for Arthritis

CBD for Arthritis

Arthritis is a general term that refers to inflammation of the joints.  Large fraction of the world population suffers from this debilitating and painful condition.  Arthritis may result from normal or occupational wear and tear or may be a result of autoimmune disorders.  The main symptoms of arthritis are joint pain and stiffness.  Degeneration and destruction of joints will occur over the period.

Many conventional medications are available as treatments.  However, these medications show some adverse side effects.  Especially, patients with diabetes, high blood pressure, heart failure and chronic kidney disease are not recommended to use these treatments.  This leaves those patients with very few options for treatment of arthritis.

Use of cannabis and CBD based medicine is a very effective treatment among most patients around the world to manage pain and inflammation with very few side effects.  Data from some surveys say that approximately 25% of medical cannabis or CBD are used by patients seeking relief from arthritis [1-2].

  1. How CBD interacts with arthritis treatment?

The endocannabinoid system present in our body is responsible for balancing upregulated endocannabinoid receptors and increased endocannabinoid levels occur during the inflammation due to arthritis.  The balancing is regulated by combining endocannabinoid system with endocannabinoids present in human body.

Some compounds in cannabis found to have anti-inflammatory properties and capable of controlling the inflammation on human body.  These compounds are called phytocannabinoids.  These phytocannabinoids can mimic the activity of endocannabinoids present in human body to combine with the endocannabinoid system.  Some of these phytocannabinoids are effectively used as medication to reduce the inflammation caused by arthritis, that leads to pain, immobility, and destruction of joints.  In addition to that some terpenoids present in cannabis and CBD such as beta-caryophyllene also show anti-inflammatory effects on human.

  1. Cannabinoids to treat arthritis

Numerous studies conducted during the last two decades clearly show that some cannabinoids possess anti-inflammatory effects, which can be beneficial in the treatment of arthritis.  These studies are mainly focused with animal models [3-7].  Unfortunately, there are no data on human trials on the benefits of cannabis for arthritis.  This may be due to the long-term prohibition of CBD based clinical research.  However, one human clinical research has been conducted using synthetic cannabinoid drug, Nabiximols (CBD:THC-1:1) on patients with rheumatoid arthritis.  This study shows that this synthetic mixture helps significantly to reduce pain and improve sleep quality of the patient [8].

Even with limited number of scientific studies about the use of cannabis for arthritis treatment on human, a large number of independently observed results show that cannabis treatment for arthritis is effective with significantly less side effects.  Most of these observations are based on THC and CBD dominated or THC+CBD combined cannabis, cannabis consumer products or extracts.  Almost every patient who uses medical cannabis claims having better pain relief and better sleep.  In addition to that similar claim were reported by patients use cannabinoid-based consumer products including THC, CBD, their corresponding acids and other phytocannabinoids.

  1. How to use CBD as arthritis medicine?

Effectiveness of cannabis as arthritis medicine is always dependent on the way of use.  Cannabis can be inhaled (smoke or vaporize), sublingual use, ingested, or use as a topical product.  Each format has different benefits and drawbacks. But what is more interesting is the use and effectiveness of CBD in relation to arthritis.

Inhalation or sublingual use of THC rich cannabis products especially CBD helps to obtain quick action with the onset of sleep.  Ingestion of cannabis edibles often provides a long-lasting effect.  However, it can take about one to two hours to be effective.  Therefore, this medicine should be ingested at least few hours before the desired time.  In addition to that, all patients using cannabis based topicals to help with arthritis must experiment with different dose and times, to find their individual needs. That is where CBD comes in.

  1. Summery

CBD is widely used as a medication for arthritis by both recreational and medical cannabis users.  Numerous individual observations on the effect of cannabis and cannabinoids for arthritis have been reported.  Pain relieving and sleep promoting effects of synthetic cannabinoid-based drugs on human have also been reported.  All these information tell us that cannabis and some cannabinoids possess anti-inflammatory effects, which can be beneficial in the treatment of arthritis.  Therefore, these valuable natural medicines will be a choice to use as effective treatment to save people from arthritis related unnecessary suffering.

  1. References

[1] W. Swift et al., Survey of Australians using Cannabis for Medical Purpose, Harm Reduction Journal, 2, No 1, 18 (2005)

[2] M. A. Ware et al., The Medicinal use of Cannabis in the UK: Results of a Nationwide Survey, International Journal of Clinical Practice, 59, No 3, 291-295 (2005)

[3] A. M. Malfait et al., The Nonpsychoactive Cannabis Constituent Cannabidiol is an Oral Anti-arthritic Therapeutic in Murine Collagen-Induced Arthritis, PNAS, 97, No 17, 9561-9566 (2000)

[4] P. F. Sumariwalla et al., A Novel Synthetic, Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid Acid (HU-320) with Anti-inflammatory Properties in Murine Collagen-Induced Arthritis, Arthritis and Rheumatism, 50, No 3, 985-998 (2004)

[5] D. C. Hammell et al., Transdermal Cannabidiol Reduces Inflammation and Pain-Related Behaviors in a Rat Model of Arthritis, European Journal of Pain, 20, No 6, 936-948 (2016)

[6] H. T. Philpott et al., Attenuation of Early Phase Inflammation by Cannabidiol Prevents Pain and Nerve Damage in Rat Osteoarthritis, Pain, 158, No 12, 2442-2451 (2017)

[7] L. J. Gamble et al., Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs, Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 5, No 165, 1-9 (2018)

[8] D. R. Blake et al., Preliminary Assessment of the Efficacy, Tolerability, and Safety of a Cannabis-Based Medicine (Sativex) in the Treatment of Pain Caused by Rheumatoid Arthritis, Rheumatology, 45, No 1, 50-52 (2006) 

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JIBE CBD Oil and Arthritis: Can it Help?

cbd-oil-and-arthritis

Arthritis affects up to 54 million Americans every year and can be a debilitating condition for those most impacted. You may associate the disease with swollen, red joints and you may be absolutely right. There are over 100 types of arthritis, each with its own unpleasant causes and features.

In most cases, the condition causes uncomfortable pain, and in others, it creates significant areas of inflammation in the body – both of which are strong rationales towards the CBD and its many benefits.

In this article, we take a closer look at the causes of arthritis. Bearing in mind the possible disturbing outcomes (some cases have to be resolved by surgery), it is essential to gather as much information as possible. Fortunately, CBD, such as JIBE’s CBD Oil may be able to help.

What Is Arthritis?

  • About 54 million adult Americans are diagnosed with arthritis
  • 300,000 children are affected by it
  • It is more prevalent in women than in men
  • Most common types include degenerative arthritis, inflammatory, infectious, and metabolic arthritis.

Their causes can be genetic or brought on by the environment, (un)healthy habits, stress, weight, other diseases, repetitive actions, and so on. Osteoarthritis is the most common type, which normally appears with age, and cannabis cream for arthritis is often used as a help to reduce the symptoms by rubbing it into sore points.

Still, there are types of arthritis such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which is basically an autoimmune disease. In short, your body creates inflammations over the whole body, not just joints. Thus, arthritis can affect the liver or kidneys, for instance.

What Is CBD?

Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of two main cannabinoids in the cannabis plant. No, it is not psychoactive in the least, and it negates the psychoactive effect of THC, its counterpart. While people have known about cannabis and how to use CBD oil for pain and other ailments for centuries, only recently has science made enough progress to unveil its qualities and interpret them properly. After all, THC and CBD were discovered not so long ago.

CBD oil can be found in many forms including CBD Tinctures, CBD Gummies, and CBD Softgels, but in essence, it is CBD, a substance obtained from the resins of the plant, mixed with some carrier oil (coconut, hemp seed, pumpkin, olive oil). How to make CBD oil is fairly easy to answer, and it’s very convenient to use.

Is CBD oil good for arthritis? Considering the long CBD oil benefits list (an excellent aid when it comes to treating acne, injuries (even surgical ones), cancer, opioid addiction, nausea, diabetes, vomiting, loss of appetite, and lots of other conditions), we can say the answer is positive and hardly surprising.

If you’re looking for more information on what CBD is and its benefits, we encourage you to check out our article “What is CBD, and How Can It Help Me” on the JIBE Blog.

How CBD for Arthritis Can Help

What interests us the most regarding arthritis are CBD’s:

  • Pain-relieving properties
  • Anti-inflammatory properties
  • Anxiety reducing
  • Insomnia benefits.

Basically, what is known as “CBD oil for arthritis” should help with all of these. Pain caused by arthritis usually comes from bones that are grinding against one another because the connecting tissue between them is missing, thus leading to inflammation of the rubbing parts. The liquid lubricating the joint may also be missing in the case of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), when the body stops producing it.

As it is an autoimmune disease, rheumatoid arthritis can damage eyes, lungs, and heart — all of them may be in need of something the body has stopped delivering. Medical marijuana for rheumatoid arthritis is quite a hot topic as the disease can be very severe.

Obviously, pain and inflammation are very much intertwined. Pain accompanies inflammation sooner or later. In addition, anxiety and insomnia are common enough among people suffering from arthritis, too.

Here are some examples of how CBD oil reaped success in dealing with these arthritis symptoms.

CBD Oil for Arthritis Pain

While pain meds are infamous for their side effects, research on arthritis treatment with CBD oil for pain showed the research subjects (in this case, rats) exhibited favorable behavior after they were given CBD. No side effects were present, and they seemed to be free of pain at least.

CBD topical was used for the treatment. This kind of treatment also seemed best compared to CBD pills, for instance, because it enables greater bioavailability.

Not only does CBD oil for arthritis pain prevent pain from occurring, but it does so through blocking the nerve damage. In Canadian research of OA (osteoarthritis), the joint neuropathic pain was successfully dealt with. CBD was applied topically.

CBD oil inhibits neuropathic pain as well. It is believed that CBD affects the sore spot and the central nervous system at the same time, interfering with its pain signals.

CBD Oil for Inflammation

study from 2011 clearly proved how some atypical cannabinoid receptors can be of help in treating inflammatory pain.  The results could inspire further research on topical CBD oil for arthritis. Essentially, Cannabidiol reacts with our endocannabinoid system and inspires it to be more active.

European Journal of Pain confirmed in a study that applying CBD to the skin lowers inflammation and pain caused by arthritis.

The exact relation of the endocannabinoid system and arthritis is yet to be established, though. If we knew more about it, it would be easier to explain how exactly CBD oil for rheumatoid arthritis works and perhaps inspire the production of CBD meds specifically for this disease.

Either way, what is important for all patients who are prescribed medical marijuana is that they are more interested in results than the exact details of what it does.

CBD Oil for Anxiety

Imagine if you had to deal with frequent pain. Or that your movements are so slow and difficult that you need some kind of a walking aid. Everybody around you does things with ease, while you need concentration and effort. This is why some people turn to cannabis for arthritis and anxiety.

CBD oil could be an even better choice than cannabis oil or smoking cannabis, for instance, as THC can potentially increase anxiety levels. CBD does so through its effect on the endocannabinoid system. Moreover, it has beneficial effects on hippocampal neurogenesis, whose impact is smaller in people suffering from anxiety and depression.

Nevertheless, too much CBD, and you may end up with worsened anxiety symptoms, so be careful about CBD dosage.

CBD Oil for Insomnia

Cannabis for rheumatoid arthritis is in high demand. Falling asleep with chronic pain can be extremely challenging as the pain can last for hours, interfering with one’s sleep. Our body needs sleep to help its recovery process every single day, making it even more important if one’s joints and body are deteriorating due to arthritis.

CBD’s calming effect helps to drift off. CBD edibles are especially recommendable for the purpose.

How to Use CBD Oil for Arthritis

Many people believe that the best CBD for anxiety is consumed sublingually as a CBD Tincture. This means that you take a tincture and drop it under your tongue. After letting it sit for about a minute, you swallow. This allows the CBD to absorb into the sublingual blood vessels under your tongue. Because of the highest efficacy, JIBE produces two strengths of CBD Tincture, a 1500 mg CBD Tincture which has 50 mg per mL, and an incredibly potent 3000 mg CBD Tincture which has 100 mg per mL.

You will often hear that arthritis is usually treated with some form of CBD lotion or a patch. The advantage of this approach is increased bioavailability. Namely, CBD does not go through the digestive system as it does via pills, vape sprays, edibles, etc. The expected time to kick in is about 10 minutes.

Best CBD oil for arthritis may come in the form of CBD gummies for pain or other edibles, which is a way to ease insomnia and chronic pain during sleep. How long does it take for CBD oil to work in this case? The cannabinoid is released slowly, but its effects may last for hours.

Vaporizers will give you an instant dose of CBD. Dropping oil under your tongue (sublingual application) allows a few minutes before CBD enters your bloodstream.

So which type of CBD oil for arthritis should be your pick? The tricky part is that it varies from person to person. It depends on what medications you are using (if any), whether you have the early stage of arthritis so you don’t have any insomnia issues, and many other individual factors.

If you’re looking for more information on dosing, we encoruage you to take a look at our “CBD Consumption Guide” on the JIBE Blog.

Potential Issues

As usual, here’s a word or two on CBD oil content, CBD oil legal status, and FDA approval.

  • CBD oil for arthritis is not FDA-approved

Though Sativex was said to be helpful in treating arthritis pain, conclusive evidence is yet to be seen. So far, no CBD oil has been defined by the FDA as designed for arthritis.

  • CBD oil quality can vary

Always read the label carefully. Despite the saturation of the market with CBD products, not all of them can vouch for the content.

  • CBD vs THC

While CBD is not psychoactive, THC certainly has that feature. CBD oil can be full spectrum or pure oil. The first one has a certain CBD-THC ratio. Marijuana for arthritis pain may not be your thing if marijuana oil makes you uncomfortable.

  •  Legal status

The 2018 Farm Bill ensures that any cannabinoid- a set of chemical compounds found in the cannabis plant- that is derived from hemp will be legal, if and only if that hemp is produced in a manner consistent with the Farm Bill. The 2018 Farm Bill defines hemp as Cannabis sativa L and “any part of the plant, including seeds thereof and all derivatives, extracts, cannabinoids, isomer acids, salts and salts od isomers”, with no more than a 0.3% concentration of THC.

What About My Pet?

CBD oil for dogs with arthritis is a huge hit. There has been quite a number of cases of pet owners stating CBD oil has done wonders for their pet. The market is certainly overflowing with pet products promising to help the doggo in need.

At the moment, research about CBD oil for pets is even more scarce than it is for humans. The future looks pretty bright, though.

Conclusion

If you have the disease, can CBD oil for arthritis help you? The research is limited but offers high hopes. All things considered, this option is definitely worth looking into. Perhaps science does not know yet how to explain all the processes which take place in our body due to CBD, but it’s definitely worth a shot.

In any case, CBD has the ability to help with at least four arthritis symptoms. Whether some CBD oil or marijuana cream for arthritis can help to reverse the damaging process remains to be investigated.

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CBD for Anxiety: Benefits of JIBE Wellness CBD

Anxiety disorders are the most common mental illness in the U.S., affecting 40 million adults in the United States age 18 and older, or 18.1% of the population every year. Anxiety disorders are highly treatable, yet only 36.9% of those suffering receive treatment!

Are you wondering what the best medication for anxiety is? CBD might just be your answer!

What Is CBD & Is It Legal?

Although CBD has boomed in popularity recently, many people aren’t knowledgeable about the chemical compound. If you’re new to it, you may be wondering what it is, where it comes from, if it’s safe, what does CBD does, etc. We’re here to inform!

First of all, CBD is mainly extracted from hemp, a strain of cannabis.

It is non-psychoactivemeaning it doesn’t get you high. It’s specifically extracted from hemp that contains a high amount of CBD and very little THC (the molecule that does get you high).

CBD products usually have 0.03% of THC or less. The only times when this may not be the case is if you’re purchasing in a marijuana dispensary. These stores often sell oils higher in THC. If you’re purchasing online, you don’t have to worry about high amounts of THC, as it’s illegal to sell this online.

You can also buy CBD without any THC at all if you’re worried about the small traces. These will be labeled as an isolate or, less commonly, broad-spectrum. Isolate processes out all of the plant molecules other than CBD, while broad spectrum simply removes all traces of THC.

What are these other plant molecules? There are 100+ cannabinoids and terpenes in the hemp plant. All of these are beneficial for overall health and different symptoms – they’ve even been shown to work better with CBD thanks to the entourage effect. None of them (other than THC) have psychoactive effects. The downside of a full-spectrum CBD oil or product will be the strong hemp taste.

If you’re looking for more information on what CBD is and its benefits, we encourage you to check out our article “What is CBD, and How Can It Help Me” on the JIBE Blog.

How CBD Works for Anxiety

Also known as cannabidiol, CBD can target many different areas in the body. This is because it affects the endocannabinoid system, which plays a part in many different bodily functions.

For anxiety, in particular, it targets specific areas of your brain. Learn more about this from the statistics and research studies below.

  • This study shows more of the science behind how CBD works with the endocannabinoid system to fight anxiety.
  • CBD for anxiety was shown to be successful in people with a social anxiety disorder in this study.
  • Even for smaller forms of anxiety such as the fear of public speaking, CBD can be immensely helpful. It has shown to reduce public speaking anxiety in this study!
  • In this study, 1500mg of CBD was given to participants with little side effects, showing that it’s impossible to overdose (or at least, nearly impossible, as we haven’t yet found a dangerous dosage). Typical doses range from 10–50mg.
  • This research shows that CBD oil for panic attacks is effective.
  • CBD has been approved by the FDA for use in the prescription drug Epidiolex, which reduces seizures and symptoms related to epilepsy.
  • The 2018 Farm Bill ensures that any cannabinoid- a set of chemical compounds found in the cannabis plant- that is derived from hemp will be legal, if and only if that hemp is produced in a manner consistent with the Farm Bill. The 2018 Farm Bill defines hemp as Cannabis sativa L and “any part of the plant, including seeds thereof and all derivatives, extracts, cannabinoids, isomer acids, salts and salts of isomers”, with no more than a 0.3% concentration of THC.

How to Take CBD for Anxiety

There are a few ways to take CBD in general. You can drop it under your tongue with a CBD Tincture, include it as part of your vitamin routine with CBD Softgels, or chew up some delicious CBD Gummies.

Sublingual

Many people believe that the best CBD for anxiety is consumed sublingually as a CBD Tincture. This means that you take a tincture and drop it under your tongue. After letting it sit for about a minute, you swallow. This allows the CBD to absorb into the sublingual blood vessels under your tongue. Because of the highest efficacy, JIBE produces two strengths of CBD Tincture, a 1500 mg CBD Tincture which has 50 mg per mL, and an incredibly potent 3000 mg CBD Tincture which has 100 mg per mL.

Pros:

  • Super potent, can experiment with different dosing on your own.
  • Effects last longer than other formats
  • A CBD tincture or oil is often the best deal

Cons:

  • Effects take up to an hour to kick in
  • Take a little more effort to use a dropper vs other methods.

Oral

This method can include many different products. It could be capsules, gummy bears, drinks, teas, treats, and so on. CBD gummies for anxiety are increasingly popular. While delicious, this method does have some negatives.

Pros:

Cons:

  • Feel effects within an hour
  • Oral products are often more expensive per mg of CBD
  • Set dosages of 25mg for Gummies or 30 mg for Softgels

Dosage

After learning how you can take CBD, you might then wonder how much CBD oil for anxiety to take. This answer isn’t direct – it varies for everybody! The amount might vary based on your weight, experience with cannabis or CBD, how you decided to consume it, etc.

The most important recommendation is to start small. It’s typical to start with a 10–40 mg dosage, depending on your body weight. The product will always recommend a dosage as well, which can be a good starting point.

It also depends on how you’re taking the CBD because of the bioavailability rates. If you’re vaping, you’ll need a lower dosage than if you added it to tea.

If you’re looking for more information on dosing, we encoruage you to take a look at our “CBD Consumption Guide” on the JIBE Blog.

Hemp Oil vs CBD Oil for Anxiety

Many wonder the difference between hemp oil and CBD oil, and if there is a difference at all. Although CBD oil is often called hemp oil, they’re not always the same thing.

Hemp seed oil (often called hemp oil) is extracted from the seed of the plant rather than the buds and flowers. It contains no cannabinoids. This means it doesn’t have the same pain-relieving and anxiety-fighting effects as CBD oil does. However, hemp seed oil does have some overall health benefits and is often used in cooking or skincare products.

When targeting intense symptoms such as a natural anxiety medication, you want CBD oil.

How do you tell the difference? It’s always important to read labels and ensure that there is a measurement of milligrams of CBD in the bottle. If it simply says “hemp oil” with no measurement, it’s most likely hemp seed oil and doesn’t contain CBD.

CBD Oil for Anxiety in Kids & Teenagers

This topic is a controversial one. Adults aren’t the only ones with anxiety – unfortunately, kids and teens suffer as well. However, this means they can reap the benefits of CBD too! Even anxiety in pets can be healed with this substance (more about pets in the next section)!

Given the nature of CBD, many parents become worried at the thought of giving it to their children. The connection with marijuana scares many, but it’s important to realize that CBD is completely different and not psychoactive. You’re bound to worry about the negative effects of CBD when it comes to your child. However, if you’re considering prescription anxiety medication, you should absolutely consider CBD as well.

Prescription medications can be addictive or have a number of side effects and unknown ingredients that could harm your child. This research shares how traditional anxiety medications (benzodiazepines) are addictive. Newer options have less risk for addiction but have more side effects and safety concerns.

On the other hand, CBD is shown to be perfectly safe. The only concerns are related to other medications your child may be taking (if any). It’s recommended to discuss with your doctor before giving CBD to your kid or even taking it yourself.

When wondering how to use CBD oil for anxiety in children, you can use it any way that adults do! There are also products (such as gummies) specially formulated for kids.

Research on adults is solid and shows there are very little side effects of CBD. Those that exist are minimal. They might experience drowsiness, nausea, dizziness, appetite changes, dry mouth, or other small effects.

Side Effects of Common Anxiety Medications

Side Effects of Prozac

  • Sleep problems such as insomnia or strange dreams
  • Headaches or vision changes
  • Tremors or shaking
  • Heart palpitations
  • Weight changes
  • Death, if too much is taken

Side Effects of Xanax

  • Addiction, withdrawal symptoms including seizures
  • Dizziness and lightheadedness
  • Hallucinations and suicidal thoughts
  • Slurred speech/difficulty speaking
  • Loss of coordination
  • Memory problems
  • Death, if too much is taken

Unfortunately, this isn’t even the full list. There are similar side effects for all of the other common anti-anxiety prescription medications. It comes as a shock that they give this stuff to kids! It’s scary to give your child, who may be suffering from anxiety or depression, full access to a medication that could harm or even kill them.

On the other hand, CBD oil for anxiety (and depression) is perfectly safe. It might make them feel a little drowsy and put them to sleep, but it won’t cause any true harm. There’s no overdose possibility or severe side effects. If they get it in their hands and take too much (or even the full bottle), they won’t be harmed. You’ll have complete peace of mind.

Research on Kids

There are many CBD oil for anxiety studies in adults, but it gets more limited when it comes to studies on kids. This case study shows the benefits for one little girl with PTSD from a troubled past. It’s proven difficult to find studies with research on a large number of children.

Because of this, it’s understandable if you decide to wait until there’s better scientific research regarding children and CBD. With the huge sudden growth of this industry, numerous studies are being conducted as you read this!

CBD Oil for Anxiety in Pets

As easygoing as their lives may seem, there are plenty of pets that suffer from anxiety. Whether its separation anxiety, anxiety that was caused by an abusive past, or just generalized anxiety, it can really take a toll on your furry friend. There are prescription medications that can help, but CBD is an amazing natural alternative.

Like humans, CBD is beneficial for a number of common pet issues. Using CBD for dogs anxiety (as well as cats) can change their lives. It works just as well because they have the same endocannabinoid system as us! It can help with issues such as anxiety, arthritis pain, cancer pain, bathroom issues, trouble walking, appetite problems, and so on.

You can also find dog or cat treats infused with CBD, but these can be pricey. Regular oils/tinctures are the best deal. These can be added to their food, water, or simply dropped into their mouth.

There are many brands that could be considered the best CBD oil for anxiety in pets. However, it’s most important to ensure that the product you get is specifically for pets! This is because some CBD oils meant for humans could include a flavoring or other additives that may be harmful to cats or dogs.

By purchasing a product specifically for pets, you’ll ensure that it’s 100% safe for them to consume.

The Bottom Line

Overall, JIBE CBD, particularly our JIBE CBD Oil for anxiety is an incredible discovery. It’s easy, not significantly expensive, and could be a game-changer for controlling various forms of anxiety. There’s no harm that could come from trying it out! It can be an incredible natural medicine for adults, kids, and pets. It’s not just great for anxiety either – this is just one of the symptoms that CBD oil can be used for.